Hepatitis d (Delta hepatitis) is a severe viral disease, which mainly affects the liver. The severity of the disease is based on the fact that the pathogen cannot spread through the human body. Therefore, it is not necessary – most often it is the virus of hepatitis B. But to fight with dual virus much more difficult.
Methods of infection with hepatitis D
There are 2 types of infection described by the disease. The first type (confezione) occurs if the patient is simultaneously infected D and B types of viruses. The majority of patients recovering, however, the percentage of severe complications is higher than with only HBV.
The second type (superinfection) occurs when people are already sick of HBV, and it is joined by another ВГD. This type is very dangerous, as it carries serious complications.
The incubation period in both types of infection lasts for a long time (from 1 month to six months), which complicates treatment.
As hepatitis d (ВГD) can only be in tandem with hepatitis B (HBV), and the causes of the disease are the same. List them.
- A blood transfusion. Sadly to realize, but about 0.1 to 0.2 % of people donate blood, have described infection of the disease. Therefore, checking blood before transfusion is a mandatory measure. The greater percentage of infection is exposed to those who need repeated transfusions.
- Addicts commonly found viral hepatitis D. the Virus get into the blood through non-sterile needle.
- Infection of Delta-a viral form of sexual contact is unlikely, but not excluded such cases.
- Infection of the fetus in utero, if the mother is a carrier of the virus (hepatitis d).
- The use of unsterile instruments in the salons of piercing the ears, tattooing or acupuncture increases the risk of infection.
The symptoms of infection
When ingested viral types, hepatitis a (and hepatitis b respectively) and the passage of the incubation period the following symptoms:
- the increase in body temperature;
- pain in the liver area;
- pain in large joints (knee, hip);
- the staining of urine in dark color;
- decreased performance, lethargy.
Altered biochemical parameters of blood (the main symptoms of the disease), the prothrombin level decreases and bilirubin and liver enzymes are rising.
Hepatitis d is actively studied. In studies conducted on adult patients, it was revealed that half of the patients develop cirrhosis of the liver. This is a higher figure than the ill forms.
Diagnosis of infection deals with infectious disease physician based on the results of blood tests. The disease is due to the complexity of treatment often becomes chronic, and then ill do the hepatologist or gastroenterologist.
In the past it was very difficult to conduct different types of research, and therefore the treatment was hard enough. In modern times the degree of recovery increased, but hepatitis D is poorly treatable, recovers quickly and can lead to liver dysfunction.
Currently, the main drug used to treat virus in children and adults is alpha interferon. This antiviral agent, in the right doses, have a positive effect in the treatment of the disease called hepatitis D. Doctors often use this drug to reduce the destruction of the bodies.
In the treatment with interferons observed complications normally expected and predictable. Hepatitis d in this treatment is the main side effect – the emergence of flu-like symptoms: fever, pain in muscles and joints, extreme weakness. The duration of this period can last from several hours to 1-2 days. This symptom disappears after adaptation to the interferon after a week of treatment.
Hepatitis d is treated, but the use of the drug involves changing the General analysis of blood. It is characterized by lower levels of leukocytes and platelets. Reduced number of white blood cells provokes the presence of bacterial infections. A low level of platelets causes excessive bleeding. Therefore, to restore normal blood counts the use of interferon cancel for a while.
In the fight against virus hepatitis D needs additional therapy, aimed at the resumption of the function of the liver cells and reducing symptoms. It is noticed that the reduction in mental and physical activity and healthy diets help in the fight against the disease.
The patient can be cured with timely treatment early and correct course. But the restoration of the affected parts of the liver, a fairly lengthy process.
Note that due to the complexity of the detection of hepatitis Delta and a long process of incubation of the disease can often lead to liver cirrhosis or the formation of cancerous tumors.
If the body can not cope, the complication of the Delta viral hepatitis is manifested in the form of a hepatic coma. Toxic decomposition products are released into the bloodstream of the patient and in 90% of cases lead to death.
An important role in reducing the incidence prevention is of disease. First of all it is carrying out publicity work with the population on ways of transmission and measures of prevention from infection. A very important epidemiological event in the foci of infection. Control of blood – one of the important steps in protection against disease. You also need to monitor the sterility of instruments in health care facilities and places of holding the manipulation of needles.
Vaccination plays an important role in protection from disease. There are vaccines against B-shape, it is effective and D-forms. Doctors are researching hepatitis d was developed for people already infected with HBV. We are searching for an effective vaccine against ВГD.