The rate of sugar in the urine in men no different from women. In old age, allowed a slight increase due to the reduction of health authorities. The high concentration of accumulated glucose in the blood makes the inverse process of absorption of substances from the renal tubules, so excess sugar is “dumped” into the urine. Such a mechanism operates in diabetes.
The term “sugar in urine” people are used to. But it is clear that sugars in nature quite a lot. In the human body present: levulose, lactose, galactose. Most doctors are interested in the content of glucose in blood and urine (glucosuria) as an indicator of carbohydrate metabolism. Studying the question why the level is not correct, find out what pathology has violated the right course of assimilation of this substance.
It is known that the rate of glucose in the blood ranges from 8.8 to 9.9 mmol/l, with a healthy kidney into the urine gets not more 0,06-0,08 mmol/l. Practically it is a negligible amount, which are difficult to quantify in a laboratory. Therefore, it is believed that the glucose in the urine in normal conditions should be absent. Sometimes in the conclusion they write, “traces of sugar”.
How is glucose uptake?
Glucose is obtained from food during processing in the intestine. Enters the blood and spreads in the cells of different tissues such as material required to generate energy and build structures. Penetrate inside it can only be under the influence of the pancreatic hormone insulin.
Excess glucose is destroyed in two ways:
- metabolized in the liver to glycogen and deposited there before “hard” times;
- reach of the glomeruli pass through the membrane and enter the primary urine of the tubules.
Future path is determined by the threshold of the reverse suction. The average value of the renal threshold for an adult, 10 mmol/l. If blood sugar less then it is absorbed back by using protein vectors. When exceeding this value the suction is discontinued and the part of glucose goes into the final urine.
The threshold concentration of women in their third trimester of pregnancy does not exceed 7 mmol/L. This means that the sugar in the urine, with the overload of sweets they have before. In children the threshold is higher than in adults. Of 10.45% to 12.65 mmol/l protects the child from fluctuations in glucose levels for a period of getting used to a varied diet.
The types of glycosuria
Elevated sugar in the urine is not always a pathology. Allocate 2 types of glycosuria. Physiological – often is low, lasts temporarily and is reduced immediately after the normalization of glucose in the blood.
Its causes can be:
- stressful situation;
- increased physical load;
- taking certain medicines (corticosteroids in the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases);
- the use of a significant number of sweet dishes, bakery products rich in carbohydrates, honey.
Most just physiological glycosuria is classified as:
- alimentary – associated with meals;
- emotional – during stress, fear;
- drug – under influence of therapy.
Disease Cushing’s affects the appearance of the person
Pathological glycosuria may develop in conditions and diseases without kidney damage:
- in diabetes, thyrotoxicosis, pheochromocytoma, endocrine pathology such as a disease Itsenko-Kushinga;
- chronic liver disease due to violations of the Deposit;
- acute pancreatitis is when the pancreas stops functioning and cannot produce the required amount of insulin;
- lesions of the Central regulation with meningitis, encephalitis, brain tumors, traumatic brain injuries, stroke.
Febrile glycosuria is accompanied by a significant increase in body temperature. Toxic glycosuria is a symptom of the toxic effect of poisonous substances in cases of poisoning drugs Morphine, Chloroform, Strychnine, phosphorus-containing compounds.
In medicine a common division of pathological glycosuria:
- the associated with the pancreas and production of insulin;
- not related to the condition of the pancreas.
While each of these pathologies, the appearance of sugar in the urine always shows a high level in the blood.
Features of renal glycosuria
Glucosuria of renal origin is kept in the background of normal concentrations of glucose in the blood. However, in the study of urine excreted sugar, protein, sediment microscopy indicates the content of erythrocytes, cylinders, renal epithelium. These figures indicate a violation of the filtration capacity of the kidneys or decrease of the reverse absorption (reabsorption).
Of the filter depends on the education and composition of the primary urine. But in the renal tubules, the solution is additionally processed. From it are selected of the desired substances and are absorbed into the bloodstream. Therefore, when the unbroken process in the secondary urine glucose is absent.
It is important that adsorption takes place not by diffusion processes from highly concentrated solution to a less rich, and with the active work of the cells of the epithelium of the renal tubules. Therefore, the defeat of the epithelial layer leads to disruption of the reverse suction and excretion of glucose with urine.
How to identify glucose in the urine of laboratory method?
Determination of glucose in urine is carried out in any laboratory of a medical institution. Analysis is one of the mandatory standards. The most reliable data on the content of sugar in the urine get in the study of samples collected per day of urine. It is important to note that the massive presence of bacteriuria glucose is rapidly degraded. So do the research you need as quickly as possible.
Is the use of indicator strips “Glucotest” impregnated with a special substance that is able to oxidize glucose. When lowering this into the urine strips chemical reaction of oxidation causes the formation of hydrogen peroxide. It changes the color of the indicator. The response is qualitative (confirms the presence of glucose), the concentration can be set accurately, roughly.
Test strips suitable for self-monitoring patients with diabetes
The Method Of Gaines
Used chemical reaction in an alkaline medium with heating. Glucose is able to convert copper salt solution and forms a yellow-red color.
The Method Of Benedict
Is considered the most reliable, since the reaction is only 8-10 drops of urine. In fact, not different from the way of Gaines. Changed only technology analysis. The solution gives a green color in the absence of glucose.
Applies only in the case of a clear solution of urine. This pre-precipitate all substances, pigments. Filtration is carried out in the presence of salts of lead and acetic acid.
The instrument (polarimeter) insert the vial with the transparent filtered solution. The reliability is affected by the use in the treatment of drugs of tetracycline, streptotsida.
Colorimetric method of Altgauzen
Based on the formation of color reaction with subsequent comparison of the obtained solution to the standard scale.
The composition of the reagents is orthotolidine that responds to the formed hydrogen peroxide and is painted in blue color in different shades. For the quantitative determination prepare calibration solutions with a known concentration of glucose. Determination of sugar in urine is carried out according to the calculations based on the most matching color scale.
Why sugar appears in the urine in a child?
Examination for determination of glucose in urine required in the following cases:
- the kid was too whiny, slow;
- it is noticed that the child is constantly drinking water;
- there were complaints of fatigue, weakness;
- the student cannot cope with the load;
- on the skin are visible traces of scratching;
- often there are abscesses, teenage acne;
- the baby is rapidly gaining weight or, conversely, lose weight.
After eating a whole chocolate bar to the child’s body will have to work very hard to bring the excess sugar, of course, it will appear in the urine
We must not forget that the sugar in the urine of the child may occur after eating sweets, increased physical and mental stress.
To exclude physiological glycosuria pediatrician will advise:
- limit intake of sweets, chocolate, cakes, jam;
- properly to estimate the value of athletic training, increasing physical activity, the health of the child;
- to talk and try to find out the situation in the school, comfort in case of problems in the family, to create conditions under which the child will feel loved and needed.
If the control tests show persistent glucosuria, there is an increase in the output of urine protein in the sediment appeared in the renal epithelium, erythrocytes, cylinders, it requires a full examination of the child for the differential diagnosis of renal, pancreas and hormonal disorders.
How to cope with glucose?
You should not try to reduce the sugar in the urine without a doctor. Upon receipt of the analysis it is necessary to consult an endocrinologist.
- would recommend a balanced diet;
- understand the reasons for the appearance of sugar in urine;
- will appoint the necessary tests for the differential diagnosis of diabetes.
To identify the impact of renal disease helps to make decision on how to withdraw the patient from the dangerous state of the loss of glucose with urine.
The treatment of kidney disease is the rates taking into account the damaging effect of certain drugs. The lack of aggravation says the cessation of allocations of protein, erythrocytes, glucose, normalization of the composition of the sediment, the reduction of leukocyturia, the number of bacteria.
Upon confirmation of diabetes as the main causes of glycosuria simultaneously tests the ability to assimilate glucose in the blood sugar curve tests are conducted on the functional capacity of the pancreas.
Treatment of diabetes includes:
- the exercise regime;
- food with the exception of alcohol, light in carbohydrates and fat restriction;
- the use of antidiabetic medications in pill or injections.
Be sure to set the degree of dependence on insulin, the body’s resistance to the hormone. This shows to what extent the patient needs replacement therapy.
Endocrinologist selects the form of the insulin drug individually
Recommendations of folk medicine
Among folk remedies there are plants that can reduce the level of glucose in the blood, then in urine. These methods are not recommended. Still have to be examined. Herbal medicine can be used only as an auxiliary method of treatment.
Hypoglycemic effect have herbal teas:
- from the roots of the dandelion;
- nettle leaves.
Broths can be cooked in a thermos, to insist at least three hours. To drink during the day.
Sugar in the urine is a serious symptom of many diseases. The restoration of normal body function requires a serious approach to the problem. The doctor will tell you about the necessary measures, appoint an examination and treatment. But only from the patient depends on the conditions, getting rid of the usual food. All the difficulties can be overcome if you set yourself up for healing and prevention of complications.