Osteoma of the spine is a benign tumor a tumor that develops from cells of bone structures of the spine. They are characterized by slow growth, because is asymptomatic. The large size of the tumor leads to pain, can cause curvature of the spine and compression of all components of the vertebral segment.
Osteoma of a vertebral body is a rare diseases of the spine. According to these tumors make up less than one percent of all tumors of the spine.
Osteomas in Oncology are subdivided into cancellous, compact, and mixed. It often happens that affects one vertebral segment, but in southeastway with observations of the Greek oncologist Macricostas with numerous localized a few vertebrae, and the sizes of individual foci up to 5 mm.
A small amount of information in the current literature does not allow to assess the age and gender characteristics of patients described with a diagnosis.
Clinically osteoma over an extended period (tens of years) primarily asymptomatic, they identify mostly randomly during rentgenissledovany spine or visceral organs. The rare localization (in the arcs), the tumor can cause the deformation of the spine with the addition of the clinic other symptoms.
On x-ray films of the tumour presents a dense, homogeneous raznoformatnyh structure. Basically it is located in the center of the vertebral body, its boundaries are irregular, clear on all sides, in some embodiments, are observed radiating strands (rays).
On sovremennom stage, most scientists trying to determine the assumptions that would explain the reason for the formation of spinal tumors and neoplastic processes in General.
There are negative affects on the body factors that increase the risk of development of tumors:
- hereditary tendency;
- injury and long palastine;
- prolonged stay in direct sunlight, frequent visits to tanning;
- chemical (toxic) substances;
- radiation exposure;
- bad habits, especially Smoking.
Clinical manifestations are characterized by wide variability. Basically, they are caused by compression of the spinal tissue and adjacent spinal narokoroko and destruction of bone tissue.
The initial symptom will always be pain, Katara is aggravated in the morning, and in some cases in the night. A characteristic feature of the pain syndrome will increase in intensity, regardless of the held symptomatic treatment. Such intensification is due to a gradual or sudden increase in the size of tumor. Often the clinic is absolutely not apparent for many years (benign course), however, when malignancy process legalny the end comes quickly.
Characteristic manifestations of the osteoma of the spine:
- a loss or decrease in sensory functioning;
- paresis or paralysis of muscle groups (depends on the localization of the tumor, sometimes partially or completely);
- the total was exhaustion;
- disorder in the functioning of the urogenital and digestive systems;
- curvature of the spine;
- sudden weight loss;
- febrile state.
In accordance with the number of pockets is divided into:
- monotonie (single focus);
- polytopes (numerous pockets).
In accordance with the location of tumor determines tumors of the cervical, thoracic and lumbar.
- The defeat of cervical Department. In the case vnutriarterialno localization with the presence of compression of spinal tissue clinic consists of loss of reflexes, decrease of sensitivity, the development of paresis below the point of damage. In the case extravertebral localization with external growth clinic is based on the compression of the blood vessels, which leads to a deficiency of cerebral blood supply (cephalgia, nausea, fainting, etc.), dysfunction of the auditory and visual analyzer (noise in the ears, decreased visual acuity, etc.). In addition, you can be neuralgias pain upon compression narokoroko.
- The defeat of the thoracic Department. In this case, a disguise under other postprocess, which greatly complicates diagnosis. When compression of the spinal tissue occurs numbness below the area of damage, paresis or paralysis. The compression effect on the roots of manifested pain sensation at the point of impact radiates to the arm, heart, abdominal blastobasidae the tumor can be visualized near the spine.
- The defeat of the lumbar Department. This arrangement leads to disorders of the organs of the pelvis (incontinence, impotence, etc.), paresthesia in the lower extremities, hypocholesterolaemic. Over causes marked pain in the back, which give in the lumbar, gluteal region and legs.
Mostly the tumors are identified at random during the inspection. As the instrumental examination used: rentgenissledovany, CT, MRI, examination of the urine and blood, biopsy.
Therapeutic range depends on the size and localization of tumor process.
Drug e treatment is used for the relief of pain – at the initial stages use of NSAIDs, and the ineffectiveness of last resort to narcotic analgesics.
Chemotherapy and radiation therapy is carried out with the aim of reducing the size of the tumor, either prior to operative intervention.
Surgical method – the basic method in this disease. The outcome is directly dependent on the timeliness launched treatment.