In case of imbalance in the muscles or due to improper operation of the foot, there is a constant deformation of the joint joint located in the area of the big toe, which entails a gradual protrusion of the bone. As a result of the appearance of curvature in the articular joint, severe friction occurs, leading to excessive accumulation of fluid and the inflammatory process in the synovial bag.
Specialists of bunion are divided into several types:
- positional (moderate) is formed as a result of bone formation in the area of the affected joint. The inflammatory process leads to an increase in the volume of the articular joint and, as a result, the synovial membrane is stretched. In this case, the tendons become stiff enough, which becomes the reason for the deviation of the finger from the natural axis.
- structural (heavy) occurs when the joint is displaced and leads to the closure of the toes;
- mixed bursitis combines positional and structural symptoms
Why does bursitis occur?
In most cases, the main causes causing changes in the position of the big toe are the result of arthritic processes. Symptoms of the disease are felt even in the early stages, therefore, with a rather careful attitude to your health, it is easy to identify the main causes of the disease and get rid of them.
Most often, the following factors provoke the disease:
- sandals, shoes, boots with a high heel and a narrow toe;
- hereditary factor;
- increased physical activity;
- acute infectious disease;
- flat feet.
- foot injury.
Clinical signs of the disease
Symptoms of changes in the big toe are easily diagnosed. The treatment of the disease at an early stage does not cause particular difficulties and is usually quite successful. In the initial form, bunion of the big toe has symptoms that manifest as pain in the area of the affected joint. Numbness of the toes may be felt, which leads to impaired gait.
As for the external signs, a small, soft-to-touch formation resembling a bag of water appears in the area of deformation. On palpation, tolerable pain is felt. When wearing shoes in this place corns and chafing are formed.
At this stage, the patient can conduct a self-diagnosis. To do this, you will need to squat down and take a few steps. If the movements are accompanied by slight pain in the area of the big toe of the injured leg, then you should consult a doctor for a more detailed examination.
Chronic signs of bursitis are manifested in the form of a curvature from the natural axis of the first toe and painful wave-like sensations. This form of bursitis does not occur immediately. Its development requires up to 2-3 months. During this period, the synovial bag increases in size due to excessive accumulation of fluid in the joint. An excessive amount of fibrin appears in it, gradually settling in the form of small particles on the articular joint. Periodically, chronic bursitis passes from the stage of remission to the acute form.
Symptoms of an acute period usually always appear unexpectedly, and the onset of an attack is most often preceded by an increase in physical activity.
In a few days, the patient develops reddening of the joint, mild swelling and severe pain. The course of the acute form lasts about 2-4 days, after which the arising symptoms begin to disappear.
Treatments for bursitis
Treatment of the disease should be carried out under the supervision of a specialist. Before deciding on therapy, the patient will need to undergo certain diagnostic procedures.
The doctor will conduct a visual examination of the foot, including checking the position of the foot when walking. In addition, to establish the stage of bursitis and its effect on neighboring bones, an X-ray of the leg is done. Treatment of the affected joint includes both the use of conservative therapy and surgical methods.
If bursitis is at an early stage and does not have strong pain, then the doctor will advise the patient to choose more comfortable shoes. Also, treatment involves a minimum load on the foot. During the period of treatment therapy, the patient should walk as little as possible and to lift the edema several times a day, raise the diseased limb to a height. The use of special orthopedic insoles with soft pads under the thumb gives a good effect.
At an early stage, exacerbation of bursitis may occur.
Then the following measures should be included in the treatment:
- relieving inflammation. To do this, you can use ice;
- apply a fixing bandage to the damaged area;
- application of anti-inflammatory and warming compresses to the affected area;
- the inflamed area is treated with anti-inflammatory drugs such as Diclac gel, Nise gel and other similar drugs.
However, such treatment only with these methods may be ineffective. The reason for this may be a strong accumulation of fluid in the articular cavity.
In such cases, specialists appoint a number of procedures of the following nature:
- gypsum is applied to the affected area;
- anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics are prescribed;
- introduction of hydrocortisone into the joint cavity
- with improvement in a few days, physiotherapy is prescribed: UHF, ozokerite, microwave therapy.
Surgical treatment is prescribed in cases where other methods have not had the desired effect. An indication for surgery can be both an increase in pain, and a further deviation of the finger from its natural position.
In this case, the surgical intervention may be as follows:
- puncture. During the operation, the synovial bag is punctured and the accumulated fluid is aspirated from the joint cavity;
- articular bag incision. During the operation, an incision is made in the inflamed area and its purification from accumulated fluid. The intervention ends with cauterization of the operated area with iodine or carbolic acid. In some situations, it becomes necessary to partially remove the affected articular bag;
- bursectomy. The most gentle method of treatment, which involves cutting off an ossified growth;
- the radical method involves the complete removal of the articular bag.
How to prevent bursitis
Prevention of the disease primarily involves reducing the load on the foot. First of all, professional athletes, dancers and people engaged in heavy physical labor should use special orthopedic dressings, as well as arrange short breaks in combination with a light warm-up. Immediately before starting to do a small warm-up gymnastics for the joints, consisting of jogging, athletic walking or swimming.
Prevention of the disease also includes wearing spacious low-heeled shoes. When buying, it is advisable to choose shoes, sandals and boots made of natural materials from proven and well-established manufacturers.