Bursitis is a purulent inflammatory lesion that affects the periarticular bag. In her cavity with time exudate appears.
Such bags are located in places where bones and tendons are connected and undergo severe mechanical pressure. They protect these areas, subject to injury, friction and extreme stress. However, they also tend to become inflamed. If you consult a doctor on time, bursitis does not pose any danger to life. Treatment, when it is drawn up correctly, will bring results in 2 weeks.
Inflammatory lesions of the knee, hip, and Achilles tendons are most common. And if, after a positive outcome of treatment, repeated trauma to this area occurs, there is a likelihood of developing a disease such as chronic bursitis. It will already be accompanied by serious pain, which can significantly hamper movement.
There are many reasons why this disease develops:
- Injury of any complexity (minor wound, bruise, abrasion). As a result – infection of the abrasion area;
- With the appearance of bursitis, the cause may be infection of the bag. This occurs through the lymphatic tract. From purulent foci, microbes begin to spread along them. Inflamed abscesses can be – bedsores, boils, etc .;
- Bursitis can become a chronic disease if any mechanical irritation or overstrain is constantly acting on the affected area for a rather long time. It can be overweight or even wearing uncomfortable shoes;
- Metabolic disorders are another reason that instantly “gives out” bursitis symptoms;
- Pathological changes in the joint, as a result of which the infection can penetrate directly into the bursa. Such a reason becomes inaccurate cutting of corns or calluses;
- Allergies can also cause bursitis. After all, it causes an excess of antibodies in the body;
- Poisoning. When toxins enter the bloodstream, they have the ability to poison the tissues of the periarticular bag;
- Autoimmune diseases contribute to the production of antibodies that overwhelmingly affect healthy tissues, including bursa.
At the initial stage of the development of the disease, exudate accumulates directly in the periarticular bag. If there is already a microbial flora, then the accumulated liquid will quickly pass into a purulent state.
A purulent process can spread in the body, primarily to tissues that are nearby. Phlegmon can appear both subcutaneous and intramuscular. Running the disease, you can get fistulas that do not heal. Purulent arthritis may be another consequence of untimely treatment.
Acute traumatic bursitis develops in a slightly different way. In this case, plasma or blood begins to accumulate in the bag. Over time, changes begin to appear in the wall of the bag. It noticeably thickens, and on top of it connective tissue begins to grow.
As a result, the cavity of the entire bag by these neoplasms is “divided” into several pockets. They remain dead tissue sites. Therefore, even if the disease is gone, with repeated infection or trauma, it will certainly appear again.
The adverse effects of any type of bursitis disease are undesirable for the patient. Therefore, it is necessary to treat it as soon as possible.
Types of bursitis
In modern medicine today there are several types of such a disease. It always affects joints.
It usually develops after injuries. Muscle overload during exercise can also be the cause. Factors that predispose to the appearance of this type of disease are obesity, hypothermia, a sedentary lifestyle, in which a person moves quite a bit.
Most often it occurs:
- Spit bursitis. This name comes from the name of the periarticular bag. It is in it that inflammation develops. It is located near the spit of the femur. Symptoms of this disease are pain in the area of the lesion, the occurrence of swelling and elevation of this part of the thigh. Spit bursitis is most common in patients. It especially affects professional athletes. Moreover, it rarely affects men, mostly women. The reason for this is the different structure of the pelvis. In women, it is wider, and the skewer is far enough away from the midline of the body. Accordingly, muscle friction on the spit occurs more often. And with the slightest damage to the periarticular bag, spit bursitis occurs.
- Iliac-scallop bursitis. Symptoms of this disease are characterized by swelling, pain in the thigh. In this case, the pain becomes stronger during hip extension.
- Sciatic bursitis , which occurs in the bag that is located in the pelvic area. An important symptom is pain, which intensifies when you begin to bend your hip.
Near the knee joint there are 3 periarticular bags on all sides. Inflammation can enter any of them.
Therefore, there is a classification:
- Suprapalellar bursitis. The bag is struck, which is located directly under the knee cup. The cause of this disease is usually an injury, including a completely unsuccessful landing on the knee during a fall.
- Prepatellar bursitis. Inflamed bag over the kneecap. It appears most often in those people who, because of their profession, are forced to lean on their knees. It can be plumbers, builders, cleaners.
- Popliteal bursitis. In this case, the bag, which becomes inflamed, is located in the inner surface of the knee. Appears in patients who are diagnosed with obesity. If this disease is not treated, there is a likelihood of the formation of a Baker cyst, which will clearly bulge even through the skin.
Depending on the localization of the inflammatory process, this disease can also be of different types:
- Thumb bursitis, which appears due to severe joint deformation. In this case, the finger is deflected inward, and the bone begins to “go out”. As a result, there is a constant friction of this “protruding” bone on the shoes. Such an effect leads to the inflammatory process of the periarticular bag. Symptoms of this ailment are pain in the big toe, swelling, redness appears, the joint is deformed.
- Achilles bursitis . Appears at the very spot where the calcaneal tendon attaches to the bone. Symptoms of this bursitis are redness and swelling in the heel. The lack of treatment for the disease often leads to rheumatoid arthritis.
All bursitis have common symptoms.
- The appearance of swelling, which becomes painful on palpation and movements;
- Acute bursitis begins unexpectedly for the patient himself. The first symptoms are severe pain, which is provoked by movements in sore joints.
- Chronic bursitis has mild symptoms. Although the pains are weak, but prolonged. They just never stop. Over time, connective tissue begins to grow around the joint. The result of this process is movement restriction.
Symptoms of bursitis allow you to make the correct diagnosis. However, doctors often take a puncture from the cavity of the periarticular bag.
With the help of such a diagnostic technique, it is possible to establish what the nature of the inflammation is:
With the help of a puncture, you can find out what microbial flora is in the bag, as well as its sensitivity to various antibiotics.
To effectively deal with an inflammatory infection, it is necessary to establish exactly what triggered its appearance. For this, various diagnostic tests are prescribed, including x-rays for imaging subcutaneous and deeply located bursitis.
Does the patient have an acute illness?
- peace of troubled area;
- applying warm compresses;
- pressure dressing.
Is chronic bursitis observed?
- removal of exudate. This is done by puncture the bag;
- washing the cavity of the periarticular bag with antibiotics and antiseptics.
Purulent bursitis requires a different treatment:
- opening the bag and thorough removal of all pus. This method is very long, because requires the postoperative wound to heal. And they treat her with generally accepted means.
When carrying out any interventions in the human body, the main thing is to carefully observe aseptic. Otherwise, it is possible to get serious complications, and the symptoms of bursitis do not just return, but worsen several times.
Prediction and prevention of bursitis
Depending on the nature of the course of bursitis, doctors make certain forecasts.
So, if the patient has acute bursitis, then the result of treatment largely depends on the degree of pathological changes in the tissues of the inflamed bag, how quickly the infection spreads, and how well the patient’s body resists the problem. If acute bursitis is not complicated in any way, then the prognosis can be quite favorable, a person quickly recovers, getting rid of an unpleasant ailment and serious pain. If the patient has already developed osteomyelitis, arthritis, sepsis or fistulas have appeared, then the outcome of the disease is more often unfavorable. Even after surgery, more than 2% have a relapse.
Preventive measures are to eliminate permanent injuries of the periarticular bags. To do this, you can wear special protective dressings. If the wound did occur, then it is imperative to carefully treat the damage with antiseptics:
- washing with hydrogen peroxide;
- application of a bandage with a bactericidal effect.
All pustular diseases that are in the human body must be carefully treated. Moreover, this must be done in a timely manner. Otherwise, you can get health problems, and in some cases bursitis.