Dolichosigma is not only pathology, but also variation of features of the structure of the intestine, depending on the specific clinical case.
The causes for this change can be:
1. Congenital, when the sigmoid colon has a few extra twists. This happens both because of anomalies in the development of growth and violations of the structure of the intestine due to genetics. Also congenital abnormality is formed by the child in the womb, due to diseases transferred by the mother during pregnancy, exposure to the negative factors of taking some, adversely acting on the fetus of drugs.
2. Some children because of uneven development can be observed the elongation of the sigmoid colon, however, closer to adolescence, this change disappears, the body returns to normal in accordance with the rest, so treat the pathology in the case of a child pediatricians are not in a hurry, hoping for the process of growing up.
3. Various failures in the bowel in an adult or child, leading to the formation of inflammatory processes nagrywania, the possible effects of fermentation of the contents of the sigmoid and the colon under the action of pathogenic microorganisms
4. Chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
5. Sedentary lifestyle, sedentary work, reduced physical activity.
6. The age of 40 and accompanying deformation in the body.
7. Neurosis, stress.
8. Long-term treatment of certain medications that lead to pathological changes in the structure of the internal organs.
9. Poor diet, unbalanced menu. The abuse of food rich in carbohydrates and meat products. In adults, the development of the disease contribute greatly to bad habits.
Dolichosigma is a congenital pathological condition of the intestine, where the sigmoid colon (area that goes into the rectum) is longer than the expected physiological rate. Because of its size, the sigmoid colon can be twisted to lie in layers, or to have too large a diameter, so dolichosigma intestine sometimes manifested by disorders of the processes of absorption and excretion in the body. Medical specialists diagnosed it as a disease only if such deformation of the intestine causes discomfort, leads to pathologies and it needs to be urgently treated.
Forms of the disease
Medical specialists klassificeret dolichosigma into 3 types, each of which is able to move from one to another:
1. Compensated. Characterized by the absence of clinical symptoms, pain, inflammation, impaired overall health, so at this stage undetectable in adults and children. Palpation of the abdomen, the doctor may find that the sigmoid colon is filled with hard elements defecation. Sometimes the patient complains of constipation, lasting up to 3 days and a mild feeling of discomfort and heaviness in the intestine.
2. Subcompencirovanna. Form of the disease is expressed in constant bloating, pain in the bowels, frequent constipation. To cure yourself of disruption of the internal organs of the patient is not obtained, the symptoms disappear for a while and come back.
3. Decompensated. The hard portable stage. Constipation can last weeks, abdominal pain becomes constant. The sigmoid colon is greatly increased in size due to the accumulation of feces and gases. Children also suffer from fever. Patients complain of symptoms of poisoning: loss of appetite, nausea, rashes on the body and other signs. Laxatives do not help, for the treatment of constipation only enemas.
Symptoms of dolichosigma
Usually, this pathology of the intestine makes itself felt at an early age, parents notice the appearance of problems with defecation, constipation, a significant compaction of feces. In addition, there are several signs of the disease in adults and children:
1. Some pieces of chair can be quite dry.
2. Periodic pain discomfort. Spasms in the abdomen.
3. The child has constipation since first feeding after breast milk, that is about 3-4 months. The disease becomes chronic for 3 years, trying to cure constipation only temporarily stop the development problems.
4. Feeling of fullness in the intestine.
5. If constipation lasts more than a day, can appear nausea and vomiting.
6. There is abnormal extension sections of the intestine.
7. A large number of stagnant feces causes clomazone.
8. Violation of the processes of absorption and excretion, frequent poisoning.
9. If untreated, the skin becomes more pale shade, deteriorating General condition, there is lethargy, drowsiness, putrid breath. The tongue is covered with a layer of white plaque.
10. The patient start to lose your hair, break nails.
11. Stool after stool fetid, coming out in large quantities, sometimes mixed with blood.
The disease, you cannot let things go and not try to cure, because it leads to serious complications:
1. Difficulty with defecation can lead to stagnation of fecal matter, tears and cracks in the intestine.
2. The production of fecal stones.
3. Fecal intoxication. Harmful substances from the secretions will be absorbed back into the blood, poisoning the body.
4. A significant reduction of body weight.
5. Anemia of various forms.
6. The appearance of inflammatory lesions on the skin.
7. Irritable bowel syndrome – a set of disorders of functioning, including many small unpleasant symptoms such as pain, discomfort, violation of the selection. All these symptoms disappear after the bowel is emptied.
It is important to differentiate the disease before prescribing treatment, as her symptoms are very similar to many other pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract.
Specialist can detect the presence of the disease using multiple types of diagnostics:
- Palpation. At a palpation of the abdomen observed fecal compaction in the intestines, hinges solid.
- Rectal examination shows that the colon is completely empty, even if the patient has not defecated for a long time.
- Various electronic methods of research: ultrasound, x-ray, tomography. Endoscopic techniques, for example, sfinkterami, colonoscopy. They help to identify the presence of the seals and hinges in the intestine, to exclude the possibility of tumour formation.
- Chemical tests: blood and urine tests, coprogram.
Features of therapy
The treatment consists of applying a special treatment under strict medical supervision and compliance with a well-balanced diet, tailored specifically for pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract. It is necessary to pay attention not only on menus but also on the mode of the day.
On the first two stages the doctor most frequently prescribed laxative pharmaceutical agent, based on the intensity of the symptoms. Reception occurs as long as the chair will not accept a soft consistency. Also the patient will be offered a variety of symptomatic drugs that prevent increased flatulence and normalizes bowel movements (Meconium, Motilium), antispasmodics for pain (But-shpa, Buscopan, Trimedat).
In more advanced forms of disease treatment is expected not only to basic features, but also prevention of complications. The doctor may prescribe such physiological treatments such as massage, physical therapy, various types of physical therapy. The patient will be prescribed regular enemas, but only as long as the feces are soft and will not be displayed by the body. Shown Spa treatment.
Surgical intervention is indicated only in those cases where the intestine has neraspredeleniya loops, breaks, destructive or progressive seal appears fecal intoxication. Timely examination and compliance with the treatment help avoid surgery.
The flow and development of dolichosigma depends on how well the patient will follow doctor’s orders. Subject to all the manipulations that are recommended for treatment, the symptoms gradually disappear, and returns an independent chair. The child’s symptoms may disappear as they grow older and the formation of the body, however, requires regular consultations with a paediatrician and a course of maintenance therapy. Adult dolichosigma requires constant monitoring, proper diet, work and rest. You need to avoid constipation and to treat them in a timely manner.