Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract have similar symptoms, because clinically the diagnosis is sometimes very difficult. To confirm it you need to see the mucosa, then the treatment will be more effective. With this purpose in medical institutions performed a gastroscopy or esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). The study allows to know which parts of the digestive system amazed how pronounced the changes, helps to determine patient management.
“To swallow the probe,” “to swallow up”, as they call this procedure in the nation. In fact, people describe the main stages of esophagogastroduodenoscopy, which is based on all the tests. The probe is equipped with a special camera with which the image can be displayed on the screen. There is also a lighting element, as in the lumen of the stomach and esophagus dark and attachments for therapeutic manipulation.
Often the question may arise, what is the difference between the gastroscopy and endoscopy. The mechanism for performing this same procedure, which is the examination of the mucous membranes of the gastrointestinal tract. The difference in the name comes from the Latin meaning bodies that are to be investigated. In the case of gastroscopy is the stomach, at esophagogastroduodenoscopy undertake a review of the esophagus, stomach, duodenum, assess the condition of the Vater papilla. Despite the small difference in value in medicine these two terms are synonymous.
The study is the gold standard for detecting diseases of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Possibilities for the diagnosis of the small intestine is limited, since the length of the probe does not allow to descend below the duodenum.
During the esophagogastroduodenoscopy, the doctor evaluates:
1. The color of the mucosa of the esophagus, the presence or absence of ulcers, varicose veins, narrowing of the lumen, or additional formations polyps.
2. Status of the lower esophageal sphincter. You need to make sure that it closes completely or there is a failure. During the examination, you can see the reflux of stomach contents into the esophagus. In this case, it would be visually noticeable difference in color of the mucosa of the lower and upper part of the esophagus. Near the cardiac sphincter hyperemia of the mucosa indicates the reflux and constant reflux of hydrochloric acid.
3. In the stomach also evaluate the mucosa, inflammation, ulcers, polyps, cancerous changes.
4. Additional agreement with biopsy for histological examination in case of detection of polyps, for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori. If the mucous is different in the structure, this may indicate precancerous conditions.
5. The most difficult area to conduct esophagogastroduodenoscopy – the bottom of the stomach. For its description we need to turn the endoscope inside the body, which often increases discomfort during the study.
6. The device should be free to pass through the pyloric sphincter.
7. In the duodenum it is necessary to find a large papilla, eliminate inflammation, scarring.
Gastroscopy and esophagogastroduodenoscopy conducted for diagnostic purposes, but if needed flights are also available treatments efficiency.
In the presence of indications for emergency esophagogastroduodenoscopy examination should begin immediately, because there is a threat of life of the patient. These situations include:
- Gastro-intestinal bleeding. The best way to identify the cause endoscopy. Unlike other methods, you can immediately perform therapeutic manipulations, to coagulate blood vessels.
- The presence of a foreign body.
Planned testimony provided to clarify the diagnosis, identify the extent of the lesion:
1. Dyspeptic complaints: nausea, vomiting, discomfort, epigastric pain, belching, heartburn.
2. Diagnosis of gastritis with H. Pylori test.
3. With insufficient body mass to exclude diseases of the digestive system requires a gastroscopy.
4. To assess the therapeutic activities after treatment.
To conduct esophagogastroduodenoscopy gastroscopy and routinely requires the consent of the patient. If this is a serious condition that threatens the life, or the person is unconscious, then the procedure needs to be started without the permission of the patient.
1. Absolute contraindications:
- Diseases of the esophagus, when it is impossible to introduce the endoscope. It can be scarring, luminal narrowing, presence of tumor, severe burns.
- Stroke or complicated myocardial infarction.
- A state of shock.
- Serious condition of the patient, presence of respiratory or cardiovascular failure, chronic diseases. In this case the doctor evaluates the possible risks and benefits of esophagogastroduodenoscopy for the patient and makes a decision.
- During pregnancy a study desirable.
- Sore throat, tonsillitis, other diseases of the oral cavity and upper respiratory tract.
- Problems with blood clotting.
Preparation for the procedure
The main condition for successful gastroscopy – no content in stomach and intestines. Because it is not eating for 7-8 hours prior to study. If esophagogastroduodenoscopy scheduled for the morning, dinner should be easy (cheese, yogurt, apples, vegetables) no later than 20.00. Before going to the hospital nothing is impossible! Food residues interfere with the normal assessment of the mucosa, because the procedure must be repeated. Sometimes it’s easier for a person to make an appointment after lunch. In the morning, then allowed a small Breakfast, but 7 hours before the test any food you want to exclude.
With the introduction of the endoscope airway do not overlap because asthma attacks, difficult breathing not observed.
A patient should bring a towel, water bottle. It should be possible to calm down, because nerves can only complicate esophagogastroduodenoscopy. Reflex spasm of the muscles leads to narrowing of the lumen, the movement of the endoscope becomes difficult, it will not result any. Keep in mind that between esophagogastroduodenoscopy and gastroscopy the only difference is the name. The procedure is performed using the same tools, in the same sequence.