20.01.2021

Vaccination calendar for children in Russia

In each country, a calendar is established at the state level according to which children are vaccinated. Let’s look at the vaccination calendar in Russia, especially since it has changed a bit since 2014.

Contraindications

Before learning about the timing of vaccination, parents need to familiarize themselves with the factors that are the reasons for not vaccinating the baby at all or for some period.

  • An obstacle to the introduction of any vaccine is an adverse reaction to the administration of this drug in the past (there was a strong adverse reaction or complications appeared).
  • Also, no vaccines can be administered with immunodeficiencies, malignancies and a decrease in the function of the immune system under the influence of drugs.
  • Contraindications for the introduction of BCG are low birth weight (less than 2 kg).
  • DTP vaccine is not given for progressive diseases of the nervous system and the presence of convulsive syndrome in the past.
  • Measles, mumps, and rubella vaccines should not be given for allergies to aminoglycosides.
  • If a child is allergic to egg white, he should not be given anti-rubella, measles, flu, and mumps drugs.
  • You can not vaccinate against hepatitis B with an allergy to baker’s yeast.

Before vaccination, it is necessary to assess the condition of the child and get acquainted with contraindications
Table
What infection is vaccinated against? Vaccination Dates Revaccination Dates Features
Hepatitis B 1 – in the first 24 hours after birth;

2 – in 1 month;

3 – at 6 months

If the child is at risk, the third vaccination is transferred to the age of 2 months, and at 1 year the fourth vaccination is performed.
Tuberculosis 1 – for 3-7 days of life 1 – at 6-7 years;

2 – at 14 years old

Initial vaccination is carried out with BCG-M, and BCG vaccine is given at an increased risk of tuberculosis for the child (living in a region with high incidence rates, the presence of tuberculosis in close relatives).
Diphtheria 1 – in 3 months;

2 – in 4.5 months;

3 – at 6 months

1 – at 18 months;

2 – in 6-7 years;

3 – at 14 years old

Starting with the second revaccination, a vaccine with fewer antigens is used.
Whooping cough 1 – in 3 months;

2 – in 4.5 months;

3 – at 6 months

1 – at 18 months Vaccination is carried out with a complex vaccine that also protects against tetanus and diphtheria.
Tetanus 1 – in 3 months;

2 – in 4.5 months;

3 – at 6 months

1 – at 18 months;

2 – in 6-7 years;

3 – at 14 years old

Starting with the second revaccination, a vaccine with fewer antigens is used.
Pneumococcal infection 1 – in 2-3 months;

2 – in 4.5 months;

1 – at 15 months
Hemophilic infection 1 – in 3 months;

2 – in 4.5 months;

3 – at 6 months

1 – at 18 months; Children at risk are vaccinated.
Polio 1 – in 3 months;

2 – in 4.5 months;

3 – at 6 months

1 – at 18 months;

2 – in 20 months;

3 – at 14 years old

For the first two vaccinations, an inactivated version of the vaccine is used, then the children are given a live vaccine.
Rubella 1 – in 12 months 1 – at 6 years old A complex vaccine is also used for vaccination, which also protects against measles and mumps.
Measles 1 – in 12 months 1 – at 6 years old A complex vaccine is also used for vaccination, which also protects against rubella and mumps.
Mumps 1 – in 12 months 1 – at 6 years old A complex vaccine is also used for vaccination, which also protects against measles and rubella.
Flu From 6 months Vaccination is carried out annually.

In addition, children are vaccinated against rubella at 13 years old and measles at 15-17 children, if previously the children have not been vaccinated against these infections, have not been ill with them or received only the first vaccination.

Most vaccinations, according to the calendar, will be given in the first year of a child’s life
Types of vaccination

The vaccine can be introduced into the body of the child in the following ways:

  1. Intramuscularly  This is one of the most common methods, providing a fairly quick resorption of the drug. Immunity after such an injection is formed quickly, and the risk of allergies is less, because the muscles are well supplied with blood and removed from the skin. Children under two years of age are given intramuscular vaccination in the thigh. The injection is carried out in the anterolateral region, directing the needle perpendicular to the skin. For children over two years of age, the vaccine is administered to the deltoid muscle. Introduction to the gluteal muscle is not practiced due to the small length of the needle (an injection is obtained subcutaneously).
  2. Subcutaneously.  A large number of drugs are administered in this way, for example, the rubella, mumps and measles vaccine. Its differences are a more accurate dosage than with the oral and intradermal method, as well as a lower rate of absorption and the formation of immunity, which is valuable in the presence of problems with blood coagulation. In this case, rabies and hepatitis B vaccines cannot be administered under the skin. The injection sites for subcutaneous vaccination are the area of ​​the shoulder, the front of the thigh, or the area under the shoulder blade.
  3. Intradermally.  An example of the use of this method of vaccination is the introduction of BCG. A syringe with a thin needle is used for the injection. The injection is performed in the shoulder area. However, for the prevention of complications, it is important not to introduce the drug under the skin.
  4. Through the mouth.  This method of administration is also called oral. An example of vaccination with this method is the polio vaccine in the form of an oral preparation. The technique is very simple – the right amount of the drug is dripped into the child’s mouth.
  5. Into the nose. In this way, vaccines are administered in the form of an aqueous solution, cream or ointment (for example, against rubella or flu). The disadvantage of the method is the complexity of the dosage, since part of the drug enters the digestive tract.
Most vaccines are administered intramuscularly
Booster vaccination

Revaccination is called manipulation, ensuring the maintenance of immunity to diseases for which the child was previously vaccinated.  Once again, the drug is administered to the baby so that the repeated production of antibodies increases the protection against a specific disease.

Depending on the vaccination, revaccination can be carried out 1-7 times, and sometimes not. For example, revaccinations against hepatitis B are not performed, and against tuberculosis are carried out only with negative Mantoux results. Against diseases such as rubella, pertussis, mumps, pneumococcal infection and measles, booster vaccination is carried out only 1 time, but maintaining immunity against tetanus and diphtheria requires regular booster vaccination until the end of life.

Vaccination calendar by age
Up to 1 year

The very first vaccine that a newborn baby encounters while still in the hospital is a hepatitis B vaccine. It is performed on the first day of the postpartum period. From the third to the seventh day of life, the baby is given BCG. An injection is performed in the maternity hospital intradermally in the shoulder of the baby. Hepatitis B vaccination is repeated per month.

A three-month baby expects several vaccines at once. At this age, vaccinated against polio, pneumococcal infection, pertussis, tetanus and diphtheria. If the baby is at risk, he also receives a hemophilic infection vaccine. The same list of vaccinations is characteristic for the ages of 4.5 and 6 months, except for the pneumococcal vaccine, which is vaccinated only twice (at 3 months and at 4.5 months). In addition, at the age of 6 months, a third time is vaccinated against hepatitis B.

Thanks to vaccinations, babies are no longer affected by these deadly diseases
Up to 3 years

A one-year-old baby is sent for vaccination against mumps, rubella, and measles. The vaccine that protects against these infections is complex, so there will be only one injection. Also, at 1 year of age, children who are at risk for this disease are vaccinated against hepatitis B.

At 15 months, the child will have revaccination from pneumococcal infection. At 1.5 years, revaccination against tetanus, polio, diphtheria and pertussis begins. Another revaccination against polio is carried out at the age of twenty months.

Up to 7 years

At the age of 6, the child will receive booster, measles and rubella revaccination. A seven-year-old child is again vaccinated with BCG, if there is evidence for this. Also at this age, the child receives an ADS vaccine that supports his immunity against tetanus and diphtheria.

Under 14 years old

At the age of 13, vaccination of children is carried out selectively – if the child has not been vaccinated before or information about previous vaccinations is not available. Girls are additionally given a rubella vaccine.

Under 18 years old

At age 14, the time comes for another revaccination against such infectious diseases as tetanus, polio, tuberculosis and diphtheria. Also at this time, you can be vaccinated against measles and hepatitis B, if previously vaccinations against these viral infections have not been carried out.

Many vaccinations will be done outside of school
Vaccine preparation

Before vaccinating a child, it is necessary to determine the state of his health. This will help the examination of specialists (often it is required to show the baby to a neurologist or allergist), as well as urine and blood tests. Before vaccination, it is important not to change the baby’s diet and not include new products in it.

Also, parents are advised to purchase antipyretic drugs in advance, since a temperature reaction to vaccination appears in many children.  If there is a risk of an allergic reaction, several days before vaccination and several days after the injection, it is worth giving the child an antihistamine. When vaccinating children up to a year in a clinic, it is worth taking a clean diaper with you, as well as a toy.

Advice

Vaccination is actively promoted and recommended by WHO and doctors, but parental consent is also required for vaccinations. There were always parents who refused to give vaccines to their children for certain reasons. Frequent failure has led to an increase in the incidence of infections such as whooping cough and diphtheria. In addition, due to the refusal of vaccinations, there is a high risk of outbreaks of poliomyelitis and other dangerous infections. Of course, vaccinations cannot be attributed to completely safe procedures, but the safety of vaccinations is much higher than the disease that vaccination prevents.

Parents are advised not to interrupt the vaccination schedule. This is especially important for vaccination against diphtheria. Refuse or miss can only revaccination. If you are in doubt whether vaccinations will harm the child, contact an immunologist who, if there are temporary contraindications (for example, diathesis), will develop an individual vaccination plan for the baby.

The probability of developing complications after vaccination in a healthy child is practically zero
Before vaccination, it is important to make sure not only that the child is healthy, but also that the terms of contraindications expire. If the baby had an acute infection, the vaccine can be given only at least 2 weeks after recovery

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