Disease is the most common parasitic infections. The causative agents of the disease in adults are the protozoa Giardia, actively parasitic in the upper small intestine. Along with helminthiasis giardiasis called the disease of dirty hands.
Infection occurs through the oral-faecal way through poor-quality water or contaminated soil remaining on fruits and vegetables. Cysts (fixed shape lamblia) enter the products that absorb people and objects concerned with unwashed hands.
What is giardiasis?
In adults Giardia require long-term treatment. It’s viable microorganisms active in the environment for a long time. For example, in the soil, they retain the ability to infection within 3 weeks, drinking water and dairy products – up to 3 months. Carriers of cysts are flies, Pets, rodents.
As adults become infected with giardiasis?
Human infection protozoa can cause disease only in the presence of two factors:
- 1. The concentration of cysts in the intestines – the greater the number of parasites enters the body, the higher the probability of the disease and difficult treatment.
- 2. The immune system – the weaker the resistance of the body at the time of implantation of the organisms, the less likely the person is to stay healthy.
That the body has Giardia, people often learn the results of laboratory tests. In addition, it appears that the contamination occurred long ago and health suffered serious damage. In order to detect giardiasis in adults and cure it, you must know the main symptoms of the disease.
Inside the cysts fall together with products, which swallows people. Further microscopic organisms move from aggressive acidic environment of the stomach into the alkaline region of the small intestine. Here the cyst takes an active form and is converted into lambley. Active specimens are fixed on the villi of the small intestine and suck the nutrients intended for the body: vitamins, carbohydrates, amino acids. The result of parasitism Giardia in humans, is deteriorating fermentation, reduced the intake of mineral elements in the blood. This, in turn causes inflammation, atrophy of the intestinal mucosa, which is not easy to cure.
As a result of active activities lamblia in children and adults developing allergies, dysbiosis, biliary dyskinesia, frequent abdominal pain, violation of the chair. With the development of the disease there are irreversible processes of destruction of organic cells. Even if treatment and completely clear the parasites from the body, the normal function of the intestine to restore it. Giardia gradually moved to other parts of the gastrointestinal system and damage the cells of the surrounding tissues.
Among inhabitants, there are many incorrect arguments that giardiasis is able to damage the liver and bile ducts. Parasites really slow down the course of treatment of cholecystitis, but to provoke him I can’t, for the simple reason that Giardia in the liver do not live. Getting into the bile ducts, they are instantly killed.
Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment
The first symptoms can appear in one and a half to two weeks after infestation.
The main symptoms of giardiasis in adults:
- worsening or variability of appetite;
- rapid weight loss;
- pain in the right upper quadrant in the abdomen above the navel (especially after exercising or eating);
- upset stool, accompanied by cutting pains in the abdomen;
- an allergic reaction to dairy products;
- excessive flatulence, belching, heartburn, a taste of sulfur in his mouth and other dyspeptic disorders.
Additional symptoms of giardiasis are nausea, vomiting, bad breath, enlargement of the liver. Among patients, only 30% point obvious signs of the disease. Most people have a period of infection is asymptomatic. Complaints arise only after, when people come to the doctor to treat other organs.
Infectious disease physicians there are several forms of the disease, each of which is characterized by the presence of certain symptoms. Classification of varieties of giardiasis occurs depending on the affected area adults.
- 1. Hepatobiliary – gall bladder inflammation and disruption of the biliary tract. Typical symptoms of this form of the disease is heaviness and severe pain in the right hypochondrium, radiating to the right shoulder, nausea, vomiting.
- 2. Asthenic-neurotic – functional disruptions of the nervous system manifested in the form of headaches, irritability, sleep disorders, fatigue, signs of vegetative dystonia.
- 3. Toxico-allergic – painful sensitivity of the organism to various substances and odors. Typical symptoms are: severe itching, hives, eczema, atopic dermatitis, angioedema.
In practice often there are the disease of a mixed type, combining the symptoms of different forms of giardiasis.
What are the diagnostic methods?
The presence in a patient of specific symptoms of giardiasis may not serve as the sole basis for diagnosis. To make a final conclusion, the attending doctor prescribes several types of research:
- 1. Coprogram (stool test) – diagnosis is confirmed if detected in the feces for Giardia cysts. There are cases when they appear to Calais with periodic frequency. So if the answer requires re-examinations every 7 days for 1-1,5 months.
- 2. General blood analysis – confirmation of the diagnosis is the excess of eosinophils and a sharp decline in hemoglobin levels.
- 3. Duodenoscope – study of the juice of the small intestine is carried out using a probe. The biomaterial does not happen cysts, here are detected the active form of Giardia.
When you confirm the parasitic infection the physician will usually recommends that you examine the next of kin of the patient.
Traditional methods for the treatment of giardiasis
A therapeutic program must appoint a physician gastroenterologist, or infectious disease.
Drug treatment of adults includes a series of phased activities:
- Diet, normalization of activity of intestines, strengthening the immune system, symptoms of toxicity.
- Treatment with antiparasitic drugs aimed at neutralizing activity of Giardia and complete excretion from the body.
- Comprehensive measures to strengthen the immune system. Improving the enabling environment for the microflora of the intestine and prevent the reproduction of Giardia.
The duration of the first stage is not more than 2 weeks. In the period shown such treatment:
1. A special diet, inhibit the growth of microorganisms. The menu mostly meatless meals, lots of vegetables, fruits, and complete absence of refined carbohydrates.
2. The increase flow of bile, the intake of drugs (Fabiol) and herbal infusions (corn stigmas, grass immortelle).
3. Reduction of toxic products of ability to live of Giardia – treatment with the chelators (activated carbon, POLYSORB, Enterosgel).
4. Improved digestion – enzyme products (Pancreatin, Mezim Forte, CREON).
5. Treatment of allergic reactions – Diazolin, Citrine, loratadine.
In the second period the treatment of giardiasis adults prescribe medications, disastrous acting on protozoa: Ornidazole, Metronidazole, Fasigyn, Albendazole. Also continue to accept antiallergic preparations, enzymes, sorbents. Stage and antiparasitic treatment may take from several days to several months. The duration depends on schema therapy and the selected drug. In severe cases and if symptoms persist of giardiasis patient have to treat again after 1-2 weeks.
To completely get rid of the adult patient with giardiasis, it is important to fix the result of therapy. This is the third final stage of treatment takes up to 3 weeks. The patient still follows the diet, takes multivitamins, adaptogens, enzymes, probiotics (Linex, Bifiform, Bifidumbacterin). To improve the health folk medicine recommends to treat giardiasis natural birch juice, carrot, beet, tincture of walnut.
Preventive measures in adults lies in the timely detection of the symptoms of giardiasis and treatment of patients with weakened immune systems, digestive diseases, and persons, draws up the job. Special attention is paid to the employees of medical-preventive and children’s preschool institutions, enterprises of public catering. They should receive regular prophylactic examinations with the appointment of clinical tests. Adults, infected cysts or giardiasis, suspended from work and referred for treatment.