Opisthorchiasis is one of the most severe forms of worm infestation, which affects the liver, gallbladder, pancreatic duct. Signs often resemble the symptoms of other diseases. How is the diagnosis and treatment of opisthorchiasis? Is it possible to cure the disease at home?
Causes of helminthiasis
The causative agent of opisthorchiasis – small flat worm, opisthorchis. This class Trematoda include the flukes and the liver Fluke. Located on the body of the suction Cup by which it is fixed on the internal organs. The food is mucus bile ducts, epithelium, erythrocyte.
Opisthorchiasis in humans develops after eating insufficiently cooked fish, which contains adult parasites. Most often, opistorchis lives in the fish family Cyprinidae. When injected into the human body a capsule with larvae duodenal juice dissolves the worms migrate into the tissues of the internal organs.
In opisthorchiasis often Mantoux test gives a positive result.
How does the bot?
The symptoms of opisthorchiasis occur 2-4 weeks after infection, the clinical picture can be very diverse. Only then can you develop the right treatment plan of invasion. In the acute phase of opisthorchiasis sharply raises the temperature, which is accompanied by muscle and joint pain. The adult can begin severe diarrhea, vomiting, there is discomfort in the area of the right hypochondrium.
After the acute phase bot enters the chronic stage. Symptoms in adults manifest as pain in the abdomen, there is a bitter taste in your mouth. In opisthorchiasis. spicy and fried foods because it starts, a serious pathological changes in the cells of the liver and pancreas.
The main symptoms of opisthorchiasis:
- severe allergic reaction – on the background of long-term intoxication, itching, hives, dermatitis, conjunctivitis;
- disorders in the digestive system – gastritis, dysbacteriosis, duodenitis, colitis, diarrhea, constipation;
- the accumulation and stagnation of bile manifested in the form of symptoms of hepatitis, jaundice, pancreatitis, begin to form stones;
- secondary immunodeficiency – frequent colds, viral diseases;
- depression, mood swings, irritability.
The infected adult becomes fatigued, the quality of sleep and appetite, dizziness and headache. Sometimes opisthorchiasis is manifested by a sudden appearance of subfebrile temperature.
Permanent mechanical damage to the mucous membranes of the internal organs leads to the formation of bleeding ulcers, it begins the degeneration of cells – a condition called pre-cancerous.
Types of diagnostics
Treatment of opisthorchiasis in adults is hampered by the absence of characteristic signs of infestation, the symptoms may resemble intestinal or viral infection. Accurate diagnosis and develop a treatment plan only after a month, when in the stool and duodenal contents it is possible to detect the eggs of parasites.
In the human body, opistorchis multiply can’t. Not dangerous to humans eggs and immature worms.
The main methods of diagnosis:
- clinical and biochemical blood tests;
- duodenal intubation;
- Ultrasound of the liver, pancreas, the bile ducts;
- serological studies of blood serum;
- coprogram, PCR.
At initial your medical history, the doctor says, in what region a person lives, how long ago ate salted or poorly treated fish. This can be better diagnostic methods, to develop the right treatment plan.
- 1. A common blood test for opisthorchiasis will reveal leukocytosis, an increased number of eosinophils, high erythrocyte sedimentation rate. In the biochemical analysis observed a low content of total protein, albumin, changes in the number of liver enzymes.
- 2. Be visible on ultrasound diffuse changes and increased size of the liver, enlargement of the diameter of the bile duct, the gallstones. CT and MRI of the abdomen allows you to see the pathology in the internal organs.
3. The stool test for opisthorchiasis must pass 3 times at intervals of 5-7 days, as helminth eggs are not always detected immediately. The parasite eggs are detected by the analysis of duodenal contents. Diagnostic PCR of feces can detect DNA opisthorchis.
4. In ELISA, the diagnosis determine the presence of specific antibodies, which occur in the blood when infected with helminths. In the acute stage of opisthorchiasis in the blood appear immunoglobulins IgM, chronic – IgG. The method is reliable in 80% of cases of infestation. A false positive result possible allergies, diseases of the digestive system, toxoplasmosis, trichinosis, fasciolata.
Treatment for adults includes several stages. In the preparatory stage for 10-20 days are needed to clean the intestines with the help of sorbents and special diets. Drugs eliminate symptoms of allergies, pain, spasms, inflammation, signs of intoxication, make an appointment choleretic enzymes.
Specific treatment of opisthorchiasis implies acceptance antiparasitic drugs, pharmacological restoration of liver cells under a special scheme. Medication to kill the worms have high toxicity, so take them only under medical supervision in a hospital.
At the final stage of therapy with choleretic drugs, vitamin complexes, enzymes and herbs to restore the gastro-intestinal tract. If time does not begin treatment of opisthorchiasis, it is wrong to develop a treatment plan, begin to develop various comorbidities – purulent inflammatory processes in the bile ducts, peritonitis, chronic pancreatitis, cirrhosis and primary liver cancer, pancreas.
Overview of effective drugs to eliminate the symptoms of opisthorchiasis:
- 1. Praziquantel (Biltricid) – the drug causes paralysis of the worms that weakens the cell membrane, the worms are dying. Adults appoint an average of 25 mg/kg, the duration of treatment is 1-3 days.
- 2. Ecoral – has choleretic, anti-inflammatory action. It is recommended to use at relapse of opisthorchiasis. Duration of treatment – 7 days, the medicine should be taken three times a day 1 tsp. half an hour after a meal.
- 3. Albendazole – disrupts the digestive system of worms, causing their death. Adults appoint 400 ml twice a day, duration of treatment – 3 days.
The main drug for the treatment of opisthorchiasis – Biltricid. The disadvantage of high toxicity, a large number of adverse reactions. During the reception, can’t drive, work at height, excluded any activity that requires quick reaction and attention.
Among the side effects frequently observed weakness, dizziness, incoordination. The drug can cause a feeling similar to intoxication, vomiting, deterioration of sleep quality. Sometimes there is an increase in temperature, disruption of the liver, allergic reactions. Biltricid cannot be combined with alcohol to take during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Contraindicated for the treatment of cysticercosis eyes are hypersensitive to components of the medication.
How to treat opisthorchiasis yourself at home?
Opisthorchiasis in the home can be treated with traditional medicines and a special diet.
The most effective method for the treatment of opisthorchiasis – birch tar. Treatment regimens:
- 1. Mix 55 ml of milk with 3-4 drops of tar, drink 9 days one hour before the first or last meal. Take a break for 3 weeks, then repeat 2 more times.
- 2. In the first day, drink 2 drops of tar daily and increase the dose by 2 drops on day 5 should be 10 drops. With 6 days to reduce the amount of drug in the same proportions. The treatment ends on the 9th day taking 2 drops of tar.
- 3. 5 g of carrot or Apple sauce add 1 drop of tar, the mixture is consumed before sleep, drink a small amount of water. The duration of therapy is 10-12 days.
Special diet for opisthorchiasis adults during treatment implies smaller meals, drink plenty of liquids. Allowed to eat boiled, baked and steam dishes, allowed honey and vegetable oil in small amounts. The basis of the diet is meat and fish low-fat varieties, dairy, any cereals, seasonal fruits and vegetables. Bread can be eaten yesterday or slightly dried in the oven.
At home the only possible treatment of pulmonary forms of opisthorchiasis. Severe infestation require constant medical supervision and strict regimens of drugs – this will help to avoid the development of serious pathologies.
Prevention of opisthorchiasis is aimed at preventing the penetration of worms in the body adults and children. Infection occurs only in the use well enough thermally treated fish, so opisthorchiasis is easier to prevent than to treat.
Boil and to fry fish should portions. The duration of the heat treatment for 15-20 minutes. Opistorchis not tolerate low temperatures, so prolonged freezing at a temperature of -28 degrees will destroy in the body of the fish blood parasites. Duration of salting fish in a concentrated salt solution is 10-40 days. It is strictly forbidden to drink tap water, water from unknown sources should always be boiled for at least 10 minutes.
Observance of hygienic rules, the easiest way for adults and children to protect themselves from worm infestation. Hands should be washed thoroughly and often.
Opisthorchiasis is a serious disease that can cause severe pathologies and oncological diseases. Treatment at home is possible only in the initial stages of infection, when only start to appear the first symptoms. Timely diagnosis, strict observance of all doctor’s recommendations, proper nutrition can help to cure the disease completely and avoid the development of any complications.