If the fontanel falls into the baby, then the most likely cause is dehydration. But there are other factors that lead to the retraction of the parietal membrane. The newborn should be shown to the pediatrician.
The fontanel is a non-ossified area on the head of every baby that grows over time. It is an indicator of the well-being of the child. If the fontanel has fallen in the baby, then you need to show it to the pediatrician. Such a pathology can indicate serious health problems of the crumbs.
To understand that something is wrong with the fontanel, you need to know how it looks normal and what are the features of its structure. Then you can independently detect the presence of deviations and seek medical help in a timely manner.
The normal condition of the fontanel
The fontanel in newborns is a soft area of the skull. It is necessary so that the shape of the head can change during childbirth and the baby does not receive life-threatening injuries.
In total, the newborn has 6 fontanelles, but in the first days of life 4 of them are closed. There are unstiffened areas on the back of the head and the head. The first one overgrows with bone tissue by the age of 2-3 months, but the last hardens only by the age of 1-2 years, and it is by its state that the development of crumbs is judged.
In boys, the fontanel overgrows faster than in girls.
Normally, the fontanel is a rhomboid pulsating area on the crown of the head. Its sizes are from 0.5×0.5 cm to 3×3 cm. The size of this site depends on genetics and the amount of calcium in the body of the crumbs.
The fontanel is elastic to the touch. The soft parietal membrane is on par with the bones of the skull. Its surface does not have to be flat; there may be a slight protrusion or dropping.
Signs of pathology of the fontanel:
- severe retraction or protrusion;
- too fast (under the age of 3 months) or slow (over the age of 2 years) overgrowing;
Any significant change in the appearance of the membrane is an occasion to consult a doctor.
Reasons for Sinking
You should not be alarmed with a slight decrease, but a strongly sunken fontanel is a cause for concern.
Why does the fontanel sink? The reasons are as follows:
- Dehydration. This is the main reason. The fontanel may fall due to a lack of fluid in the body. With breast and artificial feeding, especially if the room is hot, the baby needs to be milked.
- Infectious diseases or digestive disorders. Such problems also cause dehydration.
- Genetic predisposition.
- Nervous diseases.
There are other reasons that do not indicate pathology. For example, in postponed children, a sunken fontanel is the norm. Over time, it takes on a normal form.
During screaming and heavy crying, when the newborn is stressed, the fontanel can sink and protrude. At rest, this should not happen.
Signs of retreat
The sunken fontanel in an infant can be recognized by the following signs:
- a depressed area in the parietal region of the head is visually noticeable;
- pronounced ripple of the fontanel, which exceeds normal values - normal pulse should be no more than 130 beats per minute;
- at rest, the fontanel pulsates very much, it fails, and then protrudes.
The accompanying signs that indicate the subsidence of the membrane is a discoloration of the urine, it darkens and smells unpleasant. This happens due to the small number of urinations. A newborn should urinate at least 10 times a day. You can calculate the number of urinations by wet diapers.
With a deficiency of fluid, the child becomes lethargic, drowsy. He is constantly acting up, during crying there are no tears, because the mucous membranes are dry. Eyes become cloudy. The skin is dry and red, it is hot as the blood vessels dilate. If you press the skin, it slowly restores color and returns to its previous state.
It is urgent to provide the baby with help. This condition threatens the life of the crumbs.
Which doctor should I contact if a fontanel has fallen?
If the fontanel has fallen strongly in the baby, then you need to contact a pediatrician. He will examine the child. If the membrane really flows in the newborn, the pediatrician will give a referral to an endocrinologist or neurologist. In some cases, the help of an orthopedist is required.
If genetic pathologies have become the cause of retreat, then a geneticist consultation will be required.
What to do with a sunken fontanel?
You need to take any action only after visiting a doctor. If the cause of sunken fontanel is dehydration, then you need to make up for fluid deficiency.
Be sure to milk the babies in the following cases:
- high temperature in the room;
- overheating of the baby;
- dry air in the room;
- hot weather;
- heat in the crumbs;
- artificial feeding.
The newborn needs to be given clean boiled water.
To prevent dehydration, feed the baby on demand, and not according to the regimen.
The baby must receive the required amount of fluid per day. Norms in the table.
|Child age||The volume of liquid, ml / kg|
|first week of life||90|
|8 days-3 months||135|
In infectious diseases, if the fontanel in the baby is sunken against the background of high fever, vomiting or diarrhea, in addition to drinking plenty of fluids, the child needs medication. Prior to consulting a pediatrician, Regidron should be given to the newborn. It will help restore the water-salt balance. Every 15 minutes need to give 1 tsp.
In addition to establishing the correct drinking regimen, it is necessary to provide the child with comfortable conditions:
- indoor air temperature 22-25˚С;
- high humidity in the room, up to 60-70%;
- lack of dust and dirt, pets in the room where the child is.
You need to regularly carry out wet cleaning and ventilate the room. At this time, transfer the newborn to a room with no drafts.
To prevent overheating of the crumbs, you do not need to put a hat on him in the room. Choose lightweight clothes made of natural fabric for him, do not wrap them in hot weather. Do not place the stroller in the sun. Direct sunlight can cause a sunstroke. It is better to walk outside before lunch and after 16:00.
Before you make bad diagnoses yourself, determine the degree of lowering of the fontanel. If she is small, and the child feels well, he is active, he has a good appetite, then there are no deviations. When symptoms of dehydration appear, you need to call a doctor.