A woman who bears a child, losing a multitude of different blood and urine tests that ensure constant control over the state of her health. One of the most common methods of examination in pregnancy is the study of the parameters of the daily diuresis – volume of urine that is allocated a mother within 24 hours.
The amount of urine, dedicated person for a specific time period, called diuresis. Measuring these indicators allows to evaluate the ability of the kidneys to concentrate and excrete urine.
The results of the evaluation of the daily value of urine allows to make a conclusion about the amount consumed by pregnant woman of the water, the intensity of the functional activity of the sweat glands and the urinary.
In our article we will give answers to the following questions:
- Why it is important to know the normal daily urine output during pregnancy?
- How to collect biological material for research?
- What is the amount of urine during a day is considered normal?
- What are the causes of deviations from the norm?
That means the measure of the daily urine output?
In a healthy person the amount of urine formed in 24 hours, ranges from 1.5 to 2 liters. The magnitude of diuresis is determined by the ratio glomerular filtration rate (the mechanism of formation of primary urine) and tubular reabsorption (the process of returning water and nutrients back into the blood).
The condition of water balance depends on the concentration of the final urine and the value of daily diuresis. During a loss of human body fluid (dehydration) from vomiting, diarrhea, sweating, increase of swelling, accumulation of fluid in the pleural and abdominal cavities, develops oliguria – reduced volume of urine. When this condition is observed the allocation of about 0.5 liters of very concentrated urine.
Gipergidratace (excessive fluid intake) is characterized by polyuria – increase in the daily volume of allocated poorly concentrated urine up to 3 liters.
In medicine there is a condition called forced diuresis – rapid elimination from the human body of toxic substances that reach the simultaneous introduction of a large number of saline and diuretic. Modern biologists had studied another interesting condition of the human body, called cold diuresis is a physiological phenomenon when a person wants to empty the bladder as often as possible with decreasing temperature.
Daily urine output in pregnancy
Determination of urine volume, dedicated a mother is very important. Normally, its value ranges from 60 to 80% of the consumed liquid. With the prevalence of negative diuresis in pregnant women may receive the swelling of the lower extremities.After normalization of the water regime and diet, this phenomenon takes place over several days.
Practicing obstetrician-gynecologists believe that what amount a pregnant woman consumed the liquid, so it needs to allocate urine otherwise appear swelling
In most cases, a violation of the separation of urine develop on the 22nd obstetric week. At this time the fetus is large, the uterus increases significantly in size and presses on the urinary tract, inhibiting the secretion of urine. Very often pregnant women wonder – how much can you consume fluid and how to calculate the formula of the ratio of the filtration and reabsorption of urine?
Determination of the value of daily diuresis is usually carried out in stationary conditions. In modern medicine, for these purposes, there are many specific urine samples according to the methods of General, Addisa-Chukovskogo, Nechiporenko.
In order to properly resuscitatiology the amount allocated for the day sopping home there is a certain method – the tracking table of diuresis. It records the time and amount of consumed and discharged liquid.
Will present for your consideration a small example
Calculation of daily diuresis is an important part of diagnosis of the condition pregnant
For accurate accounting, you need to remember – water is also contained in the first and second dishes, bread, fruits, desserts. The main challenge is the correct calculation – for most products the amount of liquid indicated on the package.
Qualified experts advise pregnant women to consume foods with diuretic properties – buckwheat, watermelon, melon, berries.
Rules of urine collection for the study of daily diuresis in laboratory conditions
The result of calculating the ratio allocated per night urine and the consumed liquid was the most reliable, it is necessary to conduct laboratory research. Outcome data will allow the doctor to accurately diagnose the cause of problems with the urinary system.
To do this in the first place a pregnant woman should know the rules of collecting biological material:
- It is recommended to purchase in the pharmacy network of the canister with the handle of unpainted plastic with sealed cover and marked on one side with a scale division – this allows you to control the amount of biological substance. If you purchase such a container impossible – allowed collection of biological material in a glass jar with a volume of not less than 2 liters, it should be thoroughly disinfected and pick up a dense cover.
- Before each emptying of the bladder need to wash the outer genitals.
- The first portion of urine produced in a toilet and record the time of urination.
- Further, it is necessary to collect all, without exception, serving.
- The last time the bladder is emptied at the same hour as the first.
- Stored biological material in a cool, dark place.
- In parallel with collecting urine, carry out a metering of the liquid.
- Deliver to the laboratory centre for biological material need in the shortest time after the last emptying of the bladder – you can take all the contents of the tank, and it is possible to record the volume of urine and pee in a special small container (about 100 ml), pre-mix.
In the laboratory to determine the specific gravity and reaction environment of urine, the concentration of total protein, glucose, ketone bodies and urobilinogen, under a microscope study the composition of the urinary sediment – it will provide a complete picture of the functional activity of the urinary system.
The rate of daily diuresis and the causes of the variances
The ideal norm is considered to be a ratio of 1:1 – a volume of urine equal to the volume of the consumed liquid. A pregnant woman is a valid norm is a deviation of 0.5 liters.
The period of carrying a child is characterized by the formation of a significant part of the weight of the expectant mother due to the accumulation of fluid. With gestosis (late toxicosis) the value of daily diuresis is 40%, frequent urination occurs at night. The increasing needs of the female body in a fluid increases, its consumption in the daytime. The combination of these factors leads to a decrease in the amount allocated per night urine and the appearance of swelling, most often of the lower extremities.
Clinical signs of violations of the mechanisms of mochevyvodjashie with gestosis are:
- constant feeling of thirst;
- small amounts of urine for one urination;
- nocturia (urination at night);
- the amount of daily urine output ranges from 30 to 40%, night 20 to 30%;
- the concentration of the urine total protein (proteinuria) – evidence of a physiological or pathological nephropathy;
- high blood pressure;
- the increased membrane permeability “children’s places” (the placenta);
- pathological weight gain (up to 600 grams per week).
Disorder mochevyvodjashie can be triggered by physical exertion or psycho-emotional stress
Violation of the peripheral circulation leads to changes in diuresis – the presence of this dangerous condition specifies the pallor of the hands upon compression of a brush in a fist.
Pathological the violation of the value of daily diuresis is divided into three types.
Prerenal – appears when disorder of water-salt balance and kidney hypoperfusion (insufficient blood circulation) resulting from:
- thrombosis or compression of the renal vessels;
Renal – caused by kidney damage:
- during intoxication with salts of heavy metals, chlorinated hydrocarbons, ethylene glycol;
- the nephrolithiasis (kidney stones);
- ischemic nephropathy;
- the cell necrosis of the renal tubules.
Postrenal – the result of violations of the normal discharge of urine when obstruction of the urinary tract by stones, blood clots, or tumors.
What is recommended for pregnant women for the normalization of diuresis?
For the diagnosis of a serious pathological process must pass a comprehensive examination, including laboratory and instrumental studies. After further diagnosis by a qualified technician will prescribe a rational course of medical therapy.
The main products of the diet of pregnant women should be cereals, salads dressed with vegetable oil, dairy products, boiled fish and meat
To not feel the constant feeling of thirst, the expectant mother must exclude from a diet smoked, spicy, salty, fatty, spicy, too sweet foods. In addition to diet, it is necessary to strengthen the walls of blood vessels and improve circulation in the blood stream. For these purposes the doctor, watching the woman in the period of carrying a baby, will appoint the necessary vitamins and medicines.
In conclusion, all of the above I want to emphasize that pregnancy is largely dependent on the lifestyle of the woman. It is important to remember – the nine months spent waiting for the baby and recovery of the organism must go through for the good health of the child and for their own beauty and use.