There are different types of urine, considered to be the most informative biochemical – a set of studies of various substances. One of the important parameters of biochemistry is creatinine – end product of vital functions of the human body. For medical professionals this indicator is therefore the result of the functional activity of the kidneys, their reabsorbtsionno and filtration abilities.
Biological fluid formed in the kidneys and is intended for elimination from the human body of various “unnecessary” substances called urine (or urine). We all know that laboratory testing can tell a lot about the state of health of the person.
In our article we want to talk about ways to determine the level of this substance, the normal content of creatinine in the urine, causes and consequences of deviations of the parameters.
The source of his education is a nitrogen-containing carboxylic acid, contained in fish and meat products, and creatine protein, which is synthesized in the body from amino acids and is the basis of energy for the muscles.
When contraction of muscles is the breakdown of these components to the remnants of phosphorus, water and creatinine, whose concentration depends on the volume of the muscular system. This is why creatinine in the urine of women always lower than men’s – a phenomenon associated with physiological characteristics.
From the human body the end products of protein metabolism are excreted in urine, their filtration occurs in the kidneys from the blood the substances are in the glomeruli, then renal tubules. Normal operation of this system ensures complete cleansing of the blood of creatinine and its excretion from the body.
For the doctor an increased level of content of this product metabolism evidence of violations of the cleansing ability of the kidneys.
Methods of determining the concentration kretinina in the urine
To study the content of the considered molecular structure conduct analysis of urine, allocated by the patient during the day.
To get the most accurate results, you need to properly prepare for the analysis:
- Reduce the intake of foods containing large amounts of protein necessary for the body norm is 150 to 200 grams.
- To refrain from active physical activities and weight training.
- To eliminate the reception of medicinal preparations containing thyroxine and cortisol.
- To avoid alcohol, coffee, sugary drinks.
All biological fluid, selected by the patient for 24 hours, collected in a clean container, then cast 30-50 ml
Collecting of biomaterial start in the morning, after waking up. Before emptying the bladder is carried out the toilet of the external genitalia. A container of urine stored in a cool place, collecting the last portion – the morning of the next day.
Especially important diagnostic importance is the clearance rate (the percentage levels of creatinine in the blood and urine) and test of Rehberg, which is used for the clinical differentiation of renal parenchyma and functional failure. To calculate this parameter at the end of the urine collection, the patient produce the sampling of venous blood sample.
Norms and deviations
The creatinine concentration is an important criterion of evaluation of the functional activity of the kidneys.
The reference values of its content in daily urine depend on gender and age:
- children under 1 year, the norm ranges from 70 to 175 mmol/day;
- up to 10 years – from 70 to 195;
- to 12 years – from 70 to 195;
- for males from 120 to 210;
- women – from 95 to 175.
Elderly people, the creatinine level in the urine is lowered, the reasons for this – atrophic changes in the muscle tissue.
Improving parameters of the substance, the symptom of renal failure. To confirm the diagnosis by qualified professionals prescribe a urine test for urea (end product of amino acid metabolism) and a sample of Rehberg.
The norm values of glomerular filtration:
- for men from 81 to 141 ml/min;
- women – from 80 to 127.
Tubular reabsorption should be 94-98%.
Special diagnostic significance of the decrease in creatinine clearance when the patient has a single kidney – this indicates a heavy load for the remainder of the filter body and is an indication for such procedures as hemodialysis.
Hemodialysis – cleansing the blood using a special apparatus called an “artificial kidney”
However, it is not always a high level of creatinine indicates the presence of the disease, there are a number of physiological States, when the deviations of this nature do not affect the kidneys.
This phenomenon has been observed:
- when the load on muscles;
- the prevalence in the diet protein foods;
- prolonged compression of limbs;
- taking certain medicines (barbiturates, sulfonamides, aminoglycosides).
Certain morbid conditions of other organs can also increase creatinine levels:
- acromegaly (or gigantism) is a disease that causes the strengthened secretion of somatotropin (growth hormone);
- hyperthyroidism – overactive thyroid gland;
- myocardial infarction;
- extensive burns;
- radiation sickness.
The determination of the amount of creatinine allows to assess the toxic effects on the human body of some drugs, to calculate the safety of a single dose and to monitor the effectiveness of a course of medical therapy
The low level of product of protein metabolism is most often associated with:
- long-term fasting;
- abnormalities of hematopoiesis;
- the tendency of the patient to the swelling;
- ascites (abdominal dropsy) is the accumulation of abdominal free fluid;
- long-term administration of corticosteroids.
Methods of lowering the concentration of creatinine in the urine
In that case, when a person’s kidneys healthy, the molecules of proteins are completely removed during the day. However, if you have some problems part of the molecular structure remains in the body and gradually accumulates.
To avoid increasing creatinine concentration and development of pathological processes in the kidneys need to:
- To control the amount of salt (canned vegetables, pickles, various pickles) – this product is able to keep fluids in the body, which leads to increased blood pressure.
- Reduce the intake of animal proteins (meat, dairy) in the diet should predominate proteins of plant origin.
- To monitor the level of contents in the body potassium and phosphorus and limit foods containing these elements (cheese, zucchini, seafood, pumpkin, soy, spinach, potatoes, bananas, dried fruit) – they are able to be deposited in the muscles and kidney, thereby hampering their function.
- To stay hydrated is to drink plenty of fluids (2 liters per day). It helps to dissolve the waste exchange processes and to facilitate their excretion from the body. However, if the patient has diseases of organs of urinary system the pure water should not exceed 1.5 litres per day.
- Do not use biological composition of active substances containing creatine monohydrate – this product is the most popular sports Supplement, but its use increases the amount of creatinine in the urine.
It is very important to monitor blood pressure – their increase has a negative effect on kidney function, and increasing creatinine
You also need to remember and need a rest – during sleep there is a slowing of metabolic processes, creatine enters the bloodstream in small amounts – it speeds up its “recycling” of the kidneys.
At high concentrations of creatinine in the urine is recommended to pass a comprehensive examination to find the reasons that caused such violation. Very often this phenomenon is associated with the development of serious diseases requiring long-term treatment