According to statistics, 4% of the population when conducting ultrasound examination of the liver there is the identification of sludge in the gall bladder (image 1). Biliary sludge (sludge syndrome) is a congestion in the gallbladder in which is formed a suspension of cholesterol crystals, calcium salts, protein in bile (figure 2).
What is dangerous sludge syndrome? First, biliary sludge consists of cholelithiasis in primary stage with all its consequences. Second, the disease causes a variety of complications that can lead not only to deterioration of General condition, but also to death.
This syndrome is usually asymptomatic, but can sometimes be a pain in the liver area (both paroxysmal and pressing or pulling). The pain usually increases after meals and is of varying intensity.
When sludge syndrome may decrease appetite, appear during the day, nausea and vomiting, often mixed with bile, heartburn, irregular bowel movement (diarrhea, constipation, alternating them).
Classification of biliary sludge
A suspension is:
- with a predominant content of cholesterol crystals;
- with a predominant content of crystals of calcium;
- with the prevalence of bilirubin inclusions.
The slurry sludge may:
- mesatsa by changing the position of the body (microlithiasis);
- represent sammaskoobas bile (clots), which itself moves during the ultrasound;
- combine Zamoskvoretsky with microlithiasis in the bile.
The disease can be primary and secondary:
- the primary itself appears, the associated diseases do not exist;
- secondary develops as a result of different diseases and conditions.
The causes of the syndrome
Biliary sludge may occur due to:
- quick weight loss and various unbalanced diets;
- operations on the gastrointestinal tract;
- receiving cytotoxic drugs, antibiotics, cytostatics, drugs, calcium, etc.;
- sickle cell anemia;
- organ transplants;
- combinations of various diseases of the gastrointestinal tract;
- extraction of gallstones;
- cirrhosis of the liver;
- dropsy of the gallbladder;
- parenteral nutrition for a long time;
The disease most often affects women, men over 55 years of age, persons with a genetic predisposition, obesity.
The emergence of the disease also contribute to malnutrition (with a predominance of fatty foods, bakery products, pasta, etc.), habits, a sedentary lifestyle.
Diagnosis and treatment
The main diagnostic method to identify sludge syndrome is ultrasound. To hardware diagnostic methods of sludge include duodenal intubation, ultrasound.
The indications for their implementation are the analysis of the doctor in charge of anamnesis, determination of pain on palpation of the abdomen, the General analyses of blood and liver samples.
The treatment is prescribed by a specialist and is divided into 2 groups:
- Biliary sludge do not require treatment are identified and eliminated only the reasons of its occurrence, the patient is recommended diet number 5.
- The patient requires conservative treatment.
With medical treatment the doctor prescribes:
- medicines that contain ursodeoxycholic acid and bile (they have a hepatoprotective effect, remove toxins from the liver cells);
- antispasmodic drugs used for the relief of pain.
If treatment with a diet result does not, and there is a possibility of development of various complications (acute pancreatitis, biliary colic, cholestasis, acute cholangitis, cholecystitis), life-threatening, high, resort to surgical removal of the gallbladder.
Therefore, prophylaxis is needed. Bringing body weight back to normal, following a healthy lifestyle, regular visits to clinics, timely treatment of diseases that can lead to slago, reducing the doses of drugs that caused the occurrence of biliary sludge.
An adequate substitute drugs will help to prevent the appearance of sludge syndrome, and the development of complications of already-existing disease.