The human condition in which hemoglobin is present in urine is the medical practice title hemoglobinuria. The disease develops as a result of many disorders of the body, requiring prompt diagnosis and medical treatment. Therapy is selected by the expert, respectively, with the disease causing the emergence of hemoglobin in the urine and the General health of the patient.
As evidenced by the presence of hemoglobin in the urine
Hemoglobin is the red pigment of the blood that carries carbon dioxide and oxygen. The highest concentration observed in the erythrocytes. Other tissues of the body contain the minimum number. Increased hemoglobin in urine mean getting into her blood, as other ways of entering red blood cells in urine no. This condition occurs in many diseases, including infectious lesions.
To serve this flu, sore throat, meningitis and other diseases. Often, the hemoglobin content increases at strong overcooling, trauma, intense physical exertion.
The types gemoglobinurii
Hemoglobinuria has several types.
Classification of pathology of the following:
- nocturnal haemoglobinuria or disease Strubing-Marchiafava – acquired form of anemia, accompanied by the constant breakdown of red blood cells. This type is quite rare;
- toxic – occurs on the background of severe intoxication due to food poisoning or chemical elements;
- marching – diagnosed primarily in healthy men, whose lifestyle is associated with a long-running loads (athletes, soldiers);
- cold – a rare form of disease arising from pathological destruction of the RBC’s.
Regardless of the type gemoglobinurii main symptom of the disease is the increase in the urine of hemoglobin.
As the disease appears
In normal healthy human red pigment in urine is not detected.
During the development of the health condition of the patient is accompanied by the following symptoms:
- severe headaches, migraines;
- back pain;
- decreased immunity, weakness, malaise, irritability;
- joint pain;
- the urine has a reddish or brownish tint;
- nausea, vomiting;
- an increase in temperature.
If you experience these symptoms, do not delay visit to the doctor, this condition often indicates the development of serious pathologies.
Diseases in which get into the urine red blood cells, often accompanied by negative signs and symptoms
The causes of pathology
The reasons that trigger the increased hemoglobin include:
- pathology of the circulatory system;
- poisoning drugs, poison snakes, spiders, food;
- heavy physical exertion, prolonged walking;
- severe hypothermia;
- infectious diseases;
- long-term use iron supplements.
To detect free hemoglobin helps the urine test carried out in laboratory conditions. To identify comorbidities, the patient is recommended to undergo a thorough patient examination.
For the determination of hemoglobin in the urine, it is important to pay attention to such signs as a change in hue and structure. In healthy patient urine color light, transparent. At a high level of hemoglobin it is a dark, brownish or reddish, muddy consistency. On standing urine in the laboratory it is divided into several layers. Upper – transparent, bright and the bottom is muddy and reddish layer.
For laboratory confirmation of the presence of hemoglobin using the sample with ammonium sulphate, identification of hemosiderin in the sediment, diagnosis using electrophoresis, immunoelectrophoresis. The analysis can be taken for free at the clinic by the doctor.
To identify the disease-causing abnormalities help laboratory methods:
- ultrasound examination of the genitourinary system;
- x-rays of the kidneys;
- computed tomography of the kidneys and ureters.
Treatment of diseases that cause a positive test hemoglobin in the urine, requires a comprehensive approach that includes medication and correction of lifestyle of the patient.
Diagnosis gemoglobinurii is carried out exclusively in the laboratory
Indicators of hemoglobin in different States
If after the analysis in the urine of the patient is detected hemoglobin or myoglobin (similar in its nature the substance in the muscles) that evidence of many serious deviations. High levels of myoglobin talking about diseases affecting muscle tissue. The increase in hemoglobin occurs in renal hemorrhage, the disruption of the ureters, the urinary bladder. It is important to remember that testing positive is a serious reason for anxiety.
The concentration of red pigment:
- 10 units – often evidence of bleeding within the kidney, blood diseases;
- 25 units – occurs in diseases of the circulatory system, as a result of injury;
- from 50 units, with a significant concentration it often comes to myoglobin, which appears due to severe muscle injuries, hematomas, infectious lesions.
Increased during pregnancy
During pregnancy the increase of the red pigment serves as urolithiasis, and the defeat of the urinary system infection. Urolithiasis internal bleeding caused by the fact that formed the rocks hurt the walls of the kidneys. As a consequence, the blood into the urine.
During pregnancy the immune system of women weakens, it provokes the risk of infectious diseases. Treatment is complicated by the impossibility of the use of most antibacterial drugs during pregnancy.
Hemoglobin in children
What does it mean if the red pigment is detected in a child?
Aggravating factors of this condition in children are the following reasons:
- kidney stones;
- injuries, malignant neoplasm of the bladder;
- narrowing of the ureter;
- infectious diseases;
- kidney disease.
Treatment of pathology
Haemorrhage gemoglobinurii is defined by a hematologist.
Treatment of the disease includes the following stages:
- A blood transfusion under these severe forms of the disease like cold or paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.
- The use of corticosteroids in chronic types of disease (Betamethasone, Prednisalone).
- Therapy with immunomodulators (Immunol, Vilozen).
- The introduction of indirect anticoagulants.
- Application of preparations containing iron.
- In diseases of the bone marrow use of androgens, anabolic agents.
If no result after a course of drug therapy, the issue of the need for a bone marrow transplant.
Treatment gemoglobinurii in children and adults is strictly on prescription, do not self medicate
Prevention and conclusion
To prevent the development of gemoglobinurii should eliminate the factors causing the disease. You need to be attentive to their health, timely cure infectious diseases, prevent injuries, hypothermia, excessive physical exertion. Every six months you need to pass the blood and urine tests. The following simple preventive measures will help to prevent many serious diseases, to maintain health for many years.