The study of urine includes quantitative and qualitative indicators. The color of urine is determined by comparison to a standard scale, it necessarily entered into the conclusion of the analysis.
Modern methods of diagnosis are not comparable with the conditions of work of the provincial doctors of the XIX century, when the color of urine to judge the health of a person, know in what cases stored color foam or urinary sediment. People can notice a change in urine color. This important feature causes suspicion, doubt, need to consult a doctor.
What determines the color of urine?
The study of the biochemical composition affecting the color of urine in norm showed that matter:
To describe what color should urine be a particular person, you need to consider its eating habits, intake of medicines. The saturation of color varies depending on the total amount of urine passed, its specific gravity (concentration of solutes).
The chemical composition of urine is a multicomponent fluid. It dissolved more than 150 substances.
In the fresh urine of a healthy adult manand the color pigments form:
- the urochrome;
- the sterkobilina.
They all contribute to the staining of urine in different shades of yellow, from light to deep bright. The intensity increases with oliguria, increased specific weight of dissolved substances (salts, urea and uric acid, mucopolysaccharides).
The presence of large amounts of mucus and salts reduces the transparency, the color looks dull. Normal urine color is usually determined by the the morning portion. So one of the requirements-gathering analysis is the delivery of the container to the laboratory within two hours. If the Bank with the urine stored longer start the processes of fermentation and decomposition of the contents. This leads to changes in color and transparency.
What factors determine the color of urine?
Causes of urine color changes are related to:
- the level of metabolism in the body – increased activity in thyrotoxicosis;
- the volume of urine – the greater the diuresis, the lighter the color, since increasing dilution of the pigmenting substances;
- age – in children the urine is light yellow, grudnichkovye period almost colorless, with a faint reddish tint sometimes associated with increased uric acid levels;
- food products, preservatives containing vegetable and artificial dyes (carrots, beets, eosin, methylene blue);
- febrile condition in infectious diseases;
- injuries of the urinary tract;
- inflammation in the urogenital sphere;
- diseases of the liver, gall bladder and duct;
- diseases of the blood;
- hereditary abnormality of the metabolism.
We will examine what determines the color of urine and how does it vary in shades.
To think about it, if colorless urine in adult?
Characteristic milky white color has urine at Hilarie, it enters the lymph. This pathology is formed by the joining of the (fistulous) between the flow of the lymph and renal pelvis or bladder.
The reasons can be:
- blockage of lymph vessels by parasites (filariasis) in infectious disease transmitted by mosquitoes;
- traumatic injury;
- the result of germination and decay of the tumor;
- the tuberculous process in the lymph nodes;
- compression of the duct is greatly enlarged uterus during pregnancy in women.
Typically, the formation of three immiscible layers:
- top white clot;
- in the mid – milky fluid;
- downstairs are the cells, salts, lipid inclusions.
A similar condition is possible when Pioneros (abscess of kidney).
Difference is the absence of massive leukocyturia and bacteriuria, symptoms of acute destructive process in the kidneys. Self-termination occurs when the horizontal position of the patient, while lifting – lymph instantly fills the urinary system and urine color changes to whitish.
Sustained release pale, almost colorless urine is characteristic of diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus, chronic renal failure.
Greening urine causes Pseudomonas aeruginosa
As indicated by urine orange?
Urine orange or red color means:
- isolation from blood of a significant number of the type of pigment urochrome and urobilinogen;
- eating preservatives that contain dyes, carrot juice and dishes made of carrots, oranges;
- dehydration, low fluid intake, copious uncompensated sweating in the heat, in the sauna, during physical work;
- treatment with Chloroquine, Riboflavin, Furaginom, Furadoninom, Rifampicin alters the color of the urine from bright yellow color to intense orange.
With high content of bilirubin in the blood, urine is dark yellow or amber color, after shaking of the container is painted and foam.
When the urine has a pink hue?
The pink tint of light yellow urine appears by eating:
- dishes of beetroot and lots of carrots;
- red food dye contained in meat canned food, soda, candy;
- blackberries and cherries;
- black currant in sour urine;
- rhubarb in the alkalinisation of the urine.
Pink color is possible in the treatment of preparations:
- containing acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin, a lot of headache pills);
- a group of Phenolphthalein;
- With rifampicin.
Urine color of any pink-reddish tinge indicates presence of:
- red blood cells;
- breakdown products of hemoglobin;
- bilirubin and its derivatives.
Hematuria (admixture of fresh blood and free hemoglobin) is possible in pathological conditions:
- tumors of urinary organs;
- systemic vasculitis involving the glomerular apparatus of the kidneys.
In these cases, aside from the altered color of urine, the patients have other symptoms:
- pain in the lumbar region, above the pubis, groin, men with renal colic characterized by radiating into the penis and scrotum;
- temperature rise;
- dysuric disorders (frequent urge to urinate, cramps);
- swelling of the face in the morning, in the evening on the legs and feet;
- high blood pressure;
- unpleasant smell of urine.
In men, after 60 years, the hematuria is more a symptom of benign prostatic hyperplasia, bladder cancer
In the analysis of urine find:
- red blood cells (fresh or leached);
- the cells of the epithelium.
Without a microscope visible clumps of mucus, pus, strands of fibrin.
When your urine turns red?
This feature, as intensely red (Burgundy) color of urine indicates massive bleeding in the urinary ways.
This can be caused by:
- wound of the mucous membrane of the stone during its motion;
- the destructive action of the tumor;
- kidney injury, the lower divisions of the urinary tract, genitals;
- diseases with reduced blood clotting (hemophilia);
Urolithiasis most often the bleeding give oxalate stones. They are distinguished by sharp edges, a significant wound surface. Is characterized by redness of urine after an attack of renal colic.
Blood in the urine forms clumps, which depending on size can block the ureter and cause symptoms of acute delays.
When muscle breakdown during severe injury, compartment syndrome in the blood and urine myoglobin appears. His presence gives urine a red-brown color.
Viral hepatitis is accompanied by changes of colors of urine at different stages
If urine is dark brown, what can it mean?
Most often, dark color of urine in a child is caused by lack of fluid in drinking mode. Children are much more sensitive than adults to tolerate dehydration. Therefore, pediatricians always remind you to giving extra water between feedings and not to skimp on diapers.
In adults, in addition to dehydration, the urine darkens from:
- frequent consumption of laxatives teas containing buckthorn bark and Cassia;
- therapy with Metronidazole, Rifampicin, drugs of the group of nitrofurans, Quinine, Imipenem;
- use in the treatment of b vitamins, large doses, sulfa drugs, antibiotics;
- violation of exchange of bilirubin in hepatitis, gallstones, tumors of liver and pancreas (both the feces becomes light);
- alcoholic cirrhosis of the liver;
- viral hepatitis;
- the toxic effect on the liver in cases of poisoning by mercury;
- increased breakdown of red blood cells in the blood diseases;
- the hemochromatosis and iron excess;
- hereditary tyrosinemia is a severe disease associated with a deficiency of the enzymes involved in the breakdown of protein tyrosine, this breaks down the cells of the liver and kidneys;
- infectious inflammation of the urinary organs;
- malignant lesions of the kidney, bladder, polycystic;
- consequences of renal damage in systemic vasculitis.
Hematuria caused by hemoglobin from red blood cells in the urine, under the influence of the acidity is accompanied by a transformation in methemoglobin or hematin. So the color of pink is converted to brown.
Injury of liver tissue may be accompanied by blackening of the urine.
Black urine is also part of the symptoms of such severe diseases as:
- disease Marchiafava-Micheli (a rare form of hemolytic anemia);
- alkaptonuria – hereditary chromosomal abnormality, more often diagnosed in men;
- melanoma – a malignant tumor.
Urine in alkaptonuria blackens in the air
In pregnant women, usually in the morning urine is quite dark, and in the daytime it becomes straw yellow. Changes related to circadian hormonal balance.
When do you see blue-green shades of urine?
Urine blue or rather blue hue found in rare cases.
Drugs have the ability to:
- Phenacetin – color urine brown-green (tea) or dark color;
- Amitriptyline and methyl blue – green or blue-green;
- the tetracycline antibiotics work in a similar way to patients with diabetes;
- possible individual reaction to taking certain vitamins.
Congenital disorder of protein metabolism due to the accumulation of protein-tryptophan. It is found in fish, seafood, chicken meat, Turkey. In patients with impaired absorption the urine has a shade of blue.
When, in addition to urine, the sediment is dyed?
Urine sediment usually has a pale yellow color, but different reasons to paint it:
- if there is a large amount of uric acid, a precipitate similar to the yellow sand;
- when a large amount of urate becomes brick-red in color;
- the presence of salts of tripolyphosphates, as well as amorphous phosphate makes a precipitate dense and white;
- the admixture of pus – gives a green tint;
- the inclusion of erythrocytes – red.
What to do when it detects an unusual color of urine?
The detection of changes on the background of well-being you should think about the amount of fluid food passion. Observe the urine for 1-2 days. Constant violation of the painting may signal the beginning of chronic disease. It should be remembered that many diseases have a latent period of the flow.
Change the color of urine is difficult to assess independently. It is best to take the test. Laboratory methods allow us to find out what substances affect the color in each individual case. The doctor to determine, what does the color of your urine, first try to establish communication with the physiological causes. Only when the identification of pathology treatment.
Conclusion on human health on the basis of the color of urine can be done. For accurate diagnosis will require additional methods of examination.