Cystitis is a very common disease among women in men, there is less. The inflammatory process causes various changes in the mucous membrane of the bladder, so the symptoms of cystitis are manifested in different ways.
Properly and timely to recognize cystitis help of diagnostic methods. Their result depends on the choice of the optimal method of therapy. To treat the disease needed to deal with the root cause.
Classic signs of acute and chronic cystitis
The first signs of cystitis in uncomplicated often manifest as palpitations and painful urination, patients reported an increase in the number of urination during night hours. The symptom is called “nocturia”. The acute form is usually associated with a recently transferred infectious disease, surgery, tool survey.
The symptoms of acute cystitis do not differ from the acute and chronic forms, but is somewhat brighter, fast growing.
Patients complain of:
- frequent painful urge to urination, with no filling of the bladder and the volume of liquid can be measured drops;
- after the act of urination does not occur relief;
- in most patients, sore area above the pubis or the entire abdomen;
- the intensity of pain in the chronic form is much less;
- frequent distribution may occur in the groin area, vulva;
- the characteristic appearance of a strong burning sensation and cramps in the perineum, associated with the act of urination.
Pain in the chronic form characterized as constant, dull
Patients can change the color of urine: it becomes turbid, bloody, with strands of mucus, loose sediment, unpleasant smell. Blood is at the end of urination. Because of the expressed desires intolerable in some patients, appears incontinence.
In less severe symptoms disappear on their own after 3-4 days. Otherwise, the duration of the disease is delayed for 2 weeks and depends on the results of treatment of cystitis.
To the local symptoms associated clinic of intoxication:
- increased body temperature;
- increasing weakness, fatigue;
- loss of appetite, possible nausea;
- stupid headaches have no clear localization and duration.
The violation of disability associated with frequent trips to the bathroom, weakness, insomnia.
For chronic more typical of cystitis with no pain or with moderate constant weight on the pubis.
The exacerbation of the disease occur after:
- flu or SARS;
- a violation of the diet (alcohol, beer, spicy food);
- heavy physical work.
The signs of cystitis appear after defloration, the period of onset of sexual activity. The disease is undulating. The duration of remission depends on what health precautions observe the patient.
Features postpartum cystitis in women
The cause of postpartum inflammation of the bladder is getting infection from the birth canal or anus to the urethra.
Often develops in women with:
- prolonged and complicated childbirth;
- previous undertreated inflammation of the genital tract;
- multiple pregnancy;
- severe injuries during fights.
Postpartum cystitis – pathology, which arose on the background of infection of the bladder mucosa at the time of labour
The symptoms do not differ from ordinary acute cystitis.
- pain and cramps in the end of urination;
- frequent urge.
The General condition is usually not affected. Body temperature is normal. In the urine to determine a moderate number of leukocytes without the expressed bacteriuria.
On what grounds can be judged on severe or complicated forms?
In severe forms of the disease (gangrenous, hemorrhagic, abscess) manifested pronounced signs of intoxication:
- high scale morning and evening temperature;
- constant pain, radiating to the sacrum, in the lower back;
- the total number of daily urine is sharply reduced (oliguria);
- appears fetid putrid odor of urine;
- increasing weakness;
- worried about the constant nausea, cystitis in immunocompromised people possible vomiting (this should not be forgotten in the differential diagnosis of the disease).
What changes is detected in the urine?
Diagnosis of cystitis is necessarily involves repeated examination of urine.
The most reliable signs are:
- erythrocyturia and pyuria (blood and leukocytes in the urine);
- pyuria – pus of the decay products of bacteria, necrotised epithelium, leukocytes, fibrin;
- bacteriuria – detection of pathogens.
- In addition, sediment may be present:
- transitional and columnar epithelium;
- the salt crystals depending on the acidity of urine.
In chronic inflammation the reaction of urine is alkaline with a high content of mucus. A shift to the acid side indicates what is cystitis caused by Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
The putrid character of the urine is determined by smell
Features of clinical signs of different forms of inflammation
Current patterns of inflammation in the bladder are different options. The hidden (latent) is a rare aggravation of not more than two times in a year, practically without clinical manifestations.
In urology selected asymptomatic bacteriuria. Changes in the urine are detected by accident during the examination. Diagnosis is possible when determination in two consecutive urine samples, taken with an interval of 3-7 days, bacteriuria more than 10 CFU in ml and the absence of other symptoms and laboratory signs of infection (for comparison: in the diagnosis of cystitis is the magnitude of bacteriuria may be much less).
Persistent variant is characterized by a constancy of signs of inflammation.
Chronic interstitial cystitis – a disease with an unidentified cause. There is no relationship with risk factors and precipitating influence. Not confirmed bacterial infection.
To determine the cystitis of this species is possible on the typical symptoms:
- pain above the pubis, tends to subside when urinating and increase the accumulation of urine;
- localization of pain may be located above the pubic bone, perineum, the vagina or in the urethra;
- measurement of the volume of the bubble shows that he is reduced to a value less than 350 ml;
- the frequency of urination up to 100 times per day;
- during cystoscopy reveals ulcers and glomerular (overgrowth of scar tissue).
Patients with interstitial cystitis relate to patients with vague pelvic pain. 2/3 persons, male and female, avoid sexual relations.
Among patients with interstitial cystitis are frequent cases of suicide
Treatment for pain, drugs used in intensive analgesic effect.
Read more about the treatment of interstitial and other forms of cystitis read in this article.
Form of inflammation in the long process can change. Even asymptomatic is replaced by a pronounced aggravation.
Allergic cystitis should be considered as part of the overall contrary too reactive response of the organism to the antigen-stimulus.
The foreign factor can be:
- medications, irritating the urinary tract;
- detergents for bathrooms;
- foams and gels;
- intimate soap;
Cystitis-diagnosis in such cases includes:
- the presence of other allergic manifestations;
- data from anamnesis;
- eosinophilia in the blood and urine;
- the absence of bacteriuria.
Severe forms of cystitis
Severe inflammation of the bladder by reducing the immunity of the patient, the state of vitamin deficiency, on the background of secondary inflammation with exacerbation of the underlying disease or unstable flow.
Pathology of urinary bladder is a serious illness requiring a qualified technician
The hemorrhagic form is accompanied by microhematuria is not easy at the end of urination (similar to capillary damage as possible in serous and purulent inflammation), but a pronounced destruction of the wall of the supply vessel. Permeability is greatly enhanced.
This kind of pathology occurs in patients with:
- anemia and other diseases of the blood;
- impaired blood clotting;
- a lack of ascorbic, folic acid and vitamin b12 in the body;
- streptococcal infection.
The patient has:
- pain in the sacrum;
- difficulty urinating until the full delay of urine;
- soreness during urination;
- high temperature;
- urine has a fetid odor from necrotic tissue, and pus.
There are cases when gangrene of the bladder feigned signs of “acute abdomen”. Such option is possible in reality, in the molten perforation of the bladder wall and through the effusion of urine into the abdominal cavity. Developed peritonitis.
- stomach muscles are strained;
- the pain is diffuse in nature;
- blood pressure falls;
- observed tachycardia, weak pulse;
- the skin is covered with sticky cold sweat.
Clinic cystitis after radiation therapy and tuberculous origin always becomes chronic. The severity of the pathology associated with significant immunosuppression underlying disease.
The value cystoscopically diagnostics
Modern endoscopes allow us to examine the mucosa of the bladder (fundus, body, the orifices of the ureters, cervix), to identify comorbidities and functional impairment. From discovered form of inflammation depends on the treatment prescribed.
Specialists urologists are distinguished by endoscopic picture the following variants of inflammation:
- catarrhal – the easiest, mucosa slightly congested;
- granulation – at the sites of inflammation grows scar tissue;
- hemorrhagic – due to multiple vascular lesions appear in areas with hemorrhages of varying size;
- fibrinous – characterized deposition on the walls of the fibrin;
- ulcer on the mucosa visible cracks and sores;
- abscess – inflammation involved the entire wall of the bladder, including the detrusor muscle;
- gangrenous-necrotic zone of necrosis formed impaired blood circulation;
- cystic inside wall of the formed small cavity;
- polypose – growth of granulation tissue forms a separate polyps.
Discovered ulcer depth able to reach the muscle layer
If confidence in the diagnosis and good treatment doctor is quite common analyses, as well as more accurate research on Nechiporenko.
In cases of prolonged course, severe condition of the patient requires:
- zitostaticescoe examination;
- tank. urine;
- Ultrasound of the kidneys;
- possible biopsy.
Timely detection of signs of cystitis and initiation of treatment helps prevent the spread of infection and save kidney patients. People with an initial dysuria must consult a doctor.