Kidney stones, which causes the formation of stones in different parts of the urinary tract and begins gradually. Its first stage is the appearance of a sediment in the urine, localized in the renal pelvis and consists of a variety of mineral salts. In the future, the sediment compacted, kristallizuetsya and turns into stones, which can seriously impair the functioning of the kidneys and urinary tract.
Very often diagnosis of kidney problems occurs at the stage when the stones are already formed and have begun to impede the flow of urine or when they move in the ureter. The strongest “renal colic” and dysuric restrictvalue characteristic of this evidence. In such cases, urgently needs complex treatment, often surgical.
But is it possible to detect the initial stage of the process of stone formation, does the sand in the kidneys are the symptoms, which may accurately determine its presence? To understand this, one must first understand why begins the formation of the urinary sediment and, further, crystalline masses.
Stone formation starts with grit
What factors lead to the formation of sand
The acidity of the urine is important in this process. Is normal urine pH is 7 or slightly less, the ratio of mineral salts in this case are balanced. Urate, phosphates, oxalates among themselves balanced in quantitative terms and may not form the precipitate.
But the man is to change your diet, make it irrational or one sided, like changing the content of mineral salts. Starts the predominance of, for example, oxalates or urates, who are able to precipitate. Its accumulation is gradual, the precipitate is compacted, kristallizuetsya turns into sand. If at this stage no action is taken, the crystals are combined in concretions, often of considerable size.
Another important factor is the existence of various obstacles to the timely flow of urine from the pelvis of the kidney. For example, when stricture of the ureters, compressing them from the outside, with other anatomical defects. Stagnation of urine leads to increase its concentration, which starts the deposition of mineral salts in the sediment.
Poor nutrition can lead to many problems
There are situations when the kidney stones are formed in various diseases. Thus, the metabolic disorders can be genetically predetermined or be the result of other pathology (endocrine diseases, diseases of the stomach and intestines). In addition, inflammatory or somatic pathology of the urinary organs may also cause changes in the concentration and acidity of urine, to violate its outflow, which will inevitably lead to the formation of kidney stones in men and women.
How to detect the sand
The very first stage where mineral sediment is still soft and has not started to condense, in all cases, the hidden flows, any clinical symptoms are completely absent. They are also not marked and then, when it begins to happen the crystallization of the precipitate. The person does not feel any discomfort, not to mention the specific complaints. After all, at this stage, a small number of kidney stones in women or men more not difficult passage of urine at all divisions of the urinary system, and the crystals themselves do not injure the walls of the urinary tract and does not damage the epithelium of the mucous membranes.
Urine test you can define the initial stage of formation sand
Therefore, the signs of kidney stones at a very early stage, we can assume only certain changes in the urine. This study is considered mandatory for annual medical examinations of the population, and is an integral part of examinations in various diseases. Normal urine should not contain mineral crystals, and their detection should lead to further diagnostic measures.
Of laboratory methods, it should be noted biochemical blood analysis, which examines the content of various salts, acids and their derivatives. Assessing their quantitative level and the ratio between them, the doctor may assume the patient has the presence of metabolic disorders, even in the absence of any clinical manifestations.
Diagnosis becomes more objective and necessary, when beginning to emerge of kidney stones or hinder the outflow of urine its accumulated mass. In these cases, there are certain clinical symptoms, and the patient begins to present a complaint.
They can be represented as follows:
- various violations of the process of urination, from deceleration to acceleration acts excretion of urine;
- pain localized in the lumbar region, in the area of the lower abdomen or in the course of the urethra;
- symptoms of intoxication in the form of increased body temperature, weakness and apathy, deterioration or lack of appetite.
Lower back pain can be a signal to start removing sand from the kidneys
From the beginning, as it starts to get sand from the kidney, these signs are observed in most patients. Much less excretion of the mineral crystals is not accompanied by any clinical manifestations that can be explained only by the “softness” of grains or their small number.
Symptoms of release of sand from the kidneys, dysuric disorders before the development of intoxication syndrome can be worse if the patient has obstacles to the normal outflow of urine. In these situations, crystalline mass, stuck, for example, at the outlet of the renal pelvis or any of the ureter, cause the highest severity of pathological signs.
Dysuric syndrome may be manifested by slowing or even impossibility of urination, if the sand clogs the urinary tract. On the other hand, the presence of sand in the bladder and moving it into the urethra can cause frequent painful urination.
The development of pain syndrome due to the fact that, as a rule, the crystals of sand has rough surface and sharp edges. Therefore, from the moment when the sand went in urinary tract, begins trauma of the mucous membranes. Nerve receptors located in the epithelial layer, permanently fix the damage and transmit signals to the cerebral cortex. There these signals are regarded as painful, and people can mark their exact localization in the lumbar region, above the pubis or in the area of the urethra.
The sharp edges of the crystals can seriously damage the mucous membrane
In many cases, damage to the epithelium of the mucous membranes accompanied by infection these microscopic wounds. Can contribute to existing inflammation in the kidneys or the bladder and stagnation of urine. Therefore, the appearance of signs of intoxication does not make for a long time to wait, and the patient begins to feel discomfort or fatigue, it raises the body temperature and marked headache.
At the stage when the sand is in urinary channels, which can be determined not only by blood and urine. In urine it will be possible to detect not only mineral salts and individual crystals, but also the appearance of grains of sand in small and large quantities. Sometimes the patient can see them secreted in the urine. If the trauma to mucous membranes is possible erythrocytes, leukocytes, epithelium, and mucus in significant quantities.
Upon accession of the inflammatory process from the urinary canals clinical study of the patient’s blood becomes an important additional diagnostic method. It will be possible to detect the increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate, increased leukocyte count, appearance of young cell forms.
With the help of ultrasound we can diagnose the already formed kidney stones
When the crystal mass in the kidneys more volume, define them on the ultrasound. But the beginning of the precipitate formation and its crystallization by this method do not detect. Other methods, such as urography or plain radiography and computed tomography and its variants can do this at a very early stage of the process. They can track and how the sand will go through all the parts of the urinary tract.
When diagnosis of the presence of sand in the kidneys is complete and the patient final diagnosis, assigned an individual and comprehensive treatment plan. In addition, it is desirable to determine what mineral salts are composed of fragments of sand. This will depend on how you will need to adjust the diet.
The main directions of therapy
Treatment of the kidney sand includes the following steps:
- strict adherence to a diet, which provides for the exception of the pickles, smoked, fried and canned foods, restriction or predominance of dairy foods and certain vegetables (depending on the mineral composition of sand);
- a sufficient amount of daily fluid (2 liters per day) to avoid stagnation of urine;
- intake of drugs that prevent inflammation, pain, intoxication dysuric disorders;
- the use of folk methods of treatment (infusion or decoction of herbs).
Any detection by the patient of discomfort or symptoms from the urinary system should allow it to the doctor. Perhaps the reason they would be the sand in the kidneys, which will require only conservative treatment. If the time is missed and treatment is not forthcoming, then the progression of kidney stones will lead to the inevitability of surgical intervention.