Laboratory testing of urine to determine the concentration of protein used in various diseases. A single exceeding of the norm is not always indicative of pathology. If after repeating the procedure results do not change, requires a more thorough diagnosis of patients.
Daily proteinuria suggests the decrease in functional activity of the urinary system, formation of an inflammatory lesion inside the body, a concussion. The study also is used to assess the effectiveness of treatment.
Normal levels of protein in the urine
Protein, or a protein is an organic compound, is an essential building material for cells and tissues of the internal organs, spine, muscles, nerves.
Within the bloodstream, the protein structures are represented by two types:
- globulins – a family of globular proteins with lower dissolution ability and high molecular weight;
- albumin – a simple, soluble proteins with lower than globulins, a mass of molecules.
Such high molecular weight compounds cannot penetrate the glomeruli. Semi-permeable membrane of renal structural elements serves as a biological filter for large conglomerates, which can cause damage to the smallest capillaries. If a person’s kidney functioning normally, then the results of laboratory tests revealed a minor protein, the so-called traces.
Daily quantitative indicators should not be above 140 mg/ml of urine.
At the optimum operation of all vital systems proteins can occur in the following situations:
- In the process of disintegration of the epithelial cells during metabolism.
- The decay of mucoprotein, a complex biopolymer contained in the secretory fluids, proteins and carbohydrates.
- During the filtering process sometimes into the urine enters a minor amount of low molecular weight albumins.
Despite the fact that proteinuria is not sometimes dangerous pathological process in the body, you should focus on excess protein in the urine. This is especially important if you have a history of acute or chronic diseases of the kidneys, bladder and urinary tract.
Increased the number of proteins has several sources of origin:
- high-molecular compounds circulating in plasma, was filtered through the partially permeable membrane and did not reabsorbiruetsa in the renal tubules;
- tubular epithelium was damaged, so the proteins from the tissues was isolated from the cells and was in the urine;
- if the body is an inflammatory lesion of different etiologies fall into the urine proteins, are intensively generated in the neutralization of infectious agents.
A person with normal health urine proteins consist only of albumin, light chains of immunoglobulins, proteins and non-plasma macroglobulinov origin. Renal disease provoke significant changes in the qualitative and quantitative content of high-molecular compounds.
The daily proteinuria is characterized by increased protein in the urine
The increase in protein concentration in urine will be determined in various ways. The most common form of urine test is to use a complex of chemical reactions that result in the collapse of large conglomerates.
This is achieved by adding reagents and, if necessary, of catalysts, of compounds of the accelerating denaturation. An important criterion for study of urine protein is the transparency of the biological liquid.
For the primary diagnostics are qualitative tests, whose results allow to judge about the daily proteinuria:
- To the sample add several drops of sulfosalicylic acid. At high protein concentrations the solution becomes turbid and slightly shimmering from the large amount of suspended particles.
- 50% nitric acid is added into the flask or test tube, carefully layer on top of an equal volume of urine. If the urine is a lot of protein, on the border of two liquids formed a whitish ring.
The protein concentration is calculated based on the dilution of urine and its quantity. Daily proteinuria determines the amount of high-molecular compounds, which are derived from the human body for 24 hours, so taken a sample is considered to be 3-4 ml of the total volume of urine collected.
Natural types of proteinuria daily
Syndrome of proteinuria is diagnosed in more than 25% of patients who come to doctors with complaints of back pain and disorders of urination.
In some cases, increasing the concentration of proteins does not indicate the presence of diseases and happens due to natural causes:
- increased physical activity;
- error power.
For children and adolescents is characteristic of orthostatic proteinuria. Acetic acid added to the urine sample, produces a minor loss of muddy sediment. It consists of specific proteins that appear in the urine in the acute phase of urinary system diseases or relapses of chronic.
If the child at the time of the survey suffers from viral or bacterial diseases, before performing further diagnosis should eliminate the cause of the disease. It is necessary for the differentiation of nephritis and nephrosis flu or SARS.
This type of daily proteinuria occurs when the active sports when I enable a large number of muscles.
The rate of protein exceeded the people that spend most of their time on the feet due to the specific professional activities. Mono or unbalanced diet induce the development of nutritional daily proteinuria. Proteins sometimes appear in specimens of urine with strong emotional upheavals or great mental stress.
Proteinuria in pregnant women occurs most often by natural causes
Pathological types of daily proteinuria
Some people have a tendency to long feeling the lumbar region and lower abdomen. This palpation provokes proteinuria, developing the compression of blood vessels in these areas. Protein in the urine samples taken increased in cardiac pathologies and disappears after eliminating the causes of the disease.
Hyperthermia accompanied by fever, is always accompanied by proteinuria. This condition is especially dangerous for young children and the elderly, as it can cause damage the kidney structural elements. People, long time working in hazardous industries, redistributed renal blood flow, there is ischemia of the proximal tubules. Daily proteinuria allows to identify the pathology at an early stage.
Excessive concentration of protein in the urine daily in repeated laboratory analysis may appear degenerative, urological or inflammation of the urinary system.
Nephrologists klassificeret daily proteinuria as follows:
- Adrenal. Develops on the background of partial loss of the ability of the kidneys to filter the blood and destruction of erythrocytes with release of hemoglobin inside the capillary.
- Renal. Endothelium of the glomeruli is deformed, the protein is excreted in the urine immediately from the blood stream. This form of daily proteinuria also occurs when the violation of the blood, oxygen starvation of cells and tissues, violation of the integrity of semi-permeable membranes, receiving nephrotoxic pharmacological drugs.
- The glomerular. Cause the daily proteinuria be pathology of the endocrine system and vascular diseases accompanied by blood stasis.
- Tubular. Protein appears in the urine due to malabsorption of conglomerates with low molecular weight in the renal tubules. A distinctive feature of proteinuria is the lack of high molecular weight globulins.
- Postojeca. The concentration of protein is increased in the presence in the organism of the infectious process in which there is destruction of cells of pathogenic microorganisms.
Purulent and catarrhal inflammations are accompanied by abundant secretion of mucous components inside the structural elements of the kidneys or urinary tract. It can cause about daily proteinuria, in which protein enters the urine, bypassing the kidney.
A study of the daily proteinuria begins no later than two hours after collection of urine
How to collect urine for analysis
To not have to retake the tests, you must collect the urine with all the rules. Since the composition of urine varies throughout the day, the most effective will be the study of urine with an average concentration of substances. An important condition of the urine is sterile utensils, the preservation of normal drinking regime and diet. Before each urination, you should wash the genitals with water and detergents without fragrances, and then blot them with a cotton towel.
To determine the content of proteins would require a net capacity of not less than three liters, sealed zakuporivaniya. Start collecting urine in the morning, have cooked directly in the Bank, but the first excretion of urine for analysis is not required. The last urine collection is done in exactly one day. The study should begin no later than two hours after finishing urination.
In bedridden patients the fence of urine for analysis is carried out using bedpans or is carried out by catheterization. Many parents face difficulties – sometimes it is impossible to provide regular urination in a young child or newborn. Can be purchased at the pharmacy a few sterile containers or special urinals that are mounted on the genitals of the child with duct tape.
For determination of daily proteinuria in neonates rational use baby necesbary
In some cases, shown daily proteinuria
The study is being conducted to assess the functional activity of the glomeruli, which are responsible for formation of primary urine. On the background of the development of the pathology is the damage of semi-permeable membranes and their subsequent deformation and formation of inflammatory foci. The result of a negative process becomes defective passage through the biological filter large conglomerates.
Their content in the daily urine is possible to assess the degree of damage to the glomeruli, and suggest the presence of disease.
Here are some indications for lab tests:
- autoimmune diseases, especially acute or chronic glomerulonephritis;
- malignant tumors regardless of their location;
- the infectious process in the structural elements of the kidneys or urinary tract;
- preventive examinations to detect possible recurrence of the infectious inflammation.
Pregnant women determination of protein concentration is carried out for differentiating pathological process from natural changes in the composition of urine. Physiological proteinuria usually develops in the third trimester and disappears after childbirth. This condition occurs as a result of compression of the growing uterus, kidneys and bladder.
The increase in the concentration of proteins in single samples of urine can be a signal of the rapid development of acute inflammatory diseases. To avoid many complications, it is more likely for a urine sample for analysis. Early detection of pathology will be able to immediately start treatment.