This problem often occurs in older people suffering from lack of calcium bones.
Fracture of the sacrum occurs when direct mechanical effects on the sacral spine. Deformation can occur when you fall on the coccyx, when you get hit in the rump. In rare cases, the fracture may be the compression of the lower spine in a sitting position.
The symptoms of injuries of the pelvis, spine, and reproductive organs are very similar to the symptoms of a fracture of the sacrum. Therefore, there are often problems in determining the correct diagnosis in the early stage of treatment.
There are several most common types of fracture of the sacrum:
- Vertical. Formed on one side of the articulation of the sacrum. Often accompanied by fracture of the pelvis.
- Horizontal. Most often occurs in the lower part of the articulation bones. An isolated fracture.
- Cross. The fracture occurs across the bone of the sacrum at an oblique angle. May be accompanied by a split of the pelvis.
- Comminuted. This fracture forms a large number of bone fragments. Occurs when pressure on the pelvis.
Fracture of sacrum without displacement is characterized by the following symptoms:
- soft tissue swelling in the sacral region;
- frequent urge to urinate;
- the difficult process of defecation;
- the formation of hematomas in the area of the sacrum;
- aching pain in the lumbar of the back, extending to limbs;
- the inability to take a sitting position.
There are fractures of the sacrum with displacement, which can be determined by touching. In this case, the fracture site will occur a kind of step. This injury dangerous injury of the intestines and the walls of the abdominal Department. Also, the displacement of the vertebrae can disrupt the nerve endings of the spinal cord, which entail the violation of physical activity. There are such symptoms as vomiting, headache, loss of sensation of the feet.
For the prevention and treatment of diseases of the JOINTS our constant reader uses the increasingly popular NON-surgical method of treatment is recommended by leading German and Israeli orthopedists. Thoroughly acquainted with him, we decided to offer it to your attention.
How to give first aid
First and foremost, it is necessary to deliver the victim to the trauma center. Try during transport to give the patient supine position with elevated back and her legs spread. To remove the strongest pain, you need to take a narcotic analgesic available in any car kit. To the affected area can be applied a compress of ice. In the case of open fracture is necessary to stop the bleeding with bandaging. Next you need to place the patient on a hard surface, stomach down, placing your knees different things: clothes, blankets, pillows, cushion. This position will give an opportunity to relax the muscles of the pelvis.
Closed fracture heals within two months and open a little more than three months, depending on the age, health and the correct treatment.
The consequences of sacral fractures can have serious complications, so you must timely treatment in a medical institution.
To determine the fracture sacral spine should be x-ray. It is necessary to implement in the frontal and frontal projection. In some cases, spend x-rays and oblique sagittal projection. In the complex fracture prescribed a CT scan to diagnose minor cracks in the sacrum, and magnetic resonance imaging, to determine lesions of the joint and the ligaments and soft tissues.
After delivering the patient to the emergency station block him unbearable pain by means of analgesics, anesthetics: morphine or promedol. Then conduct all the necessary tests for a proper diagnosis. Upon detection of a sacral fracture treatment: conservative or operative.
Surgery is inevitable when melkooskolchaty the turn, to extract splinters.
How to treat a fracture of the sacrum conservative way
- To stay in bed from two weeks to a month. The bed must be solid. Placed under the lower back cushion, which unloads the fracture site, and better occurs reposition the displaced fragments. Sometimes the victim can do short turns on its side. Sit or stand will be possible only after a month.
- For the relief of pain are appointed painkillers inject drugs: Diclofenac, Baralgin.
- Assigned to oral painkillers: Piroxicam, Nimid. Local anaesthetic can be used Novocain and Lidocaine.
- May be appointed bimanual correction in cases not very severe fracture. If this procedure is ineffective, prescribe decompression and laminectomy. With its help, freed from the roots, sewn with a breaks. Prescribe such treatment individually to each patient. In case of failure of one, change it for another or combine several treatments. While fully aware of their conduct on the site of the fracture is applied plate.
In order to restore the functioning of the spine and extremities should pass a course of physiotherapy.
- Therapeutic exercises performed under the guidance of a specialist in order to recover faster nerve conduction and strengthen the muscle corset.
- Swimming and water gymnastics.
In order to avoid the negative consequences of the fracture, must wait for full recovery under the supervision of medical professionals, with strict observance of all recommendations of doctors. Otherwise you may have neurological disorders that have such effects like incontinence and numbness of the limbs. You must maintain bed rest and avoid sudden movements as this can cause incorrect splicing of the sacrum and adversely affect the future condition of man.
Heavy compression fracture creates pressure on the vertebrae. In this case, the mandatory procedure, as it can damage the spinal cord. The consequences can be different and one of them is disabled. If the fracture occurred a displacement of the bone fragments and damage to the nerve fibers and the spinal cord, a long time after discharge will experience numbness of the lower extremities.
On the occurrence of complications should be judged by the following criteria:
- pain in the lumbar;
- loss of sensation of the skin on the lower extremities, hips and back;
- weakness or complete disappearance of the knee reflex;
- swelling at the fracture site;
- not controlling the muscles of the legs, problems with movement.
Men may experience erection problems in achieving orgasm. In women disrupted menstrual cycle.
Can occur involuntary urination and defecation. If any kind of complications you should notify your doctor, who will refer the patient to rehabilitation.
The elderly and patients with osteoporosis need to take special attention and accuracy in all exercise, when driving, when walking in slippery areas. This is necessary in order to avoid injury of the sacrum, which entail serious consequences and complications.