There are two types of diabetes. In type 1 diabetes, pancreatic beta cells that produce insulin are absent or damaged. Such a patient needs regular injections of the hormone. Type 2 diabetes occurs in 90% of patients with this disease. Insulin is insufficiently produced in their body or the cells do not respond to the hormone as it is needed.
It is not true that only a person aged overweight and having parents with the same ailment can get sick. But, yes, it is these factors that contribute to the onset of the disease in most cases. In predisposed people, the disease develops if there is a lot of sweet. But love of sweets and cakes is not enough. Those who are sick or have acute or chronic pancreatitis are also at risk. The pancreas “does not like” not only sweets, but also fatty, fried foods.
The use of hormonal drugs, chronic stress are additional risk factors. Therefore, at the slightest increase in blood sugar, give up hormonal contraception. In itself, it rarely causes a disease; several factors are needed. If you can not do without hormones, then choose modern drugs, low-dose, the latest generations.
What should alert you? How to understand that you have diabetes?
Patients are concerned:
- Frequent urination (every half hour or more).
- Thirst, in which there is a need to drink 3 liters of fluid per day (even in winter).
- Strong appetite (I want to eat every half hour, regardless of the amount eaten).
- Visual impairment, image becomes fuzzy, double vision is observed.
- Genital itching, thrush.
- Increased sweating.
- Mycoses of nails, their ingrowth.
- Caries of a large number of teeth, gingivitis, frequent colds.
Even preschoolers (type 1 disease) can suffer from diabetes. It is considered a non-infectious epidemic of our century. There are many reasons for this, but the largest role is played by improper nutrition, the constant presence in the menu of fast food, hot dogs, hamburgers, chips. Many people are used to drinking Coca-Cola rather than clean water. And there is a lot of sugar, it’s very easy to recover from it, and this drink does not quench your thirst.
Treatment for diabetes: what is important to know if you have a disease
The first one. Injections are not always needed. In the early stages, it is possible to simply change the lifestyle and increase physical activity. For many, this is enough for insulin production to return to normal. If these measures do not help, tablets are connected. And injections – if the pills stop working. A special insulin pump was invented – a device that eliminates the need to constantly give injections. The pump is usually mounted on a belt.
The second one . Need a diet. Less sweet, it is virtually completely excluded. More protein: white meat, nuts, fish, oatmeal. You can eat half a banana per day. Buckwheat porridge is useful.
The third. It is important to be observed at the endocrinologist, to become on the dispensary account. If the condition worsens, you can go to the hospital. But this is an extreme measure, usually most patients do not need hospitalization.
Fourth. Diabetes pregnancy planning is a complex topic. Better to give birth as early as possible. Pregnancy will be at high risk. Find a good gynecologist and endocrinologist. We will talk more about this later.
Fifth . The body is vulnerable to diabetes for infections. Treat your throat and teeth in time, prevent STDs (sexually transmitted diseases), and get flu shots in the autumn and winter. Treat wounds.
Sixth . Watch your legs. If the nails grow, a fungus, vascular problems, trophic ulcers appeared, visit the center of the diabetic foot. There are such specialists in all major cities. The podologist – a master in medical pedicure with the appropriate education (medical university, college) will also help take care of your legs. It can be found in a good beauty salon.
Seventh. Physical activity in this disease is required, but it is also impossible to heavily load the body. Be sure to drink enough fluids; dehydration should not be allowed.
The eighth. Overweight should be your priority. You need to burn as many calories as you eat. Otherwise, excess fat is actively starting to accumulate, especially on the stomach. Enough to prevent obesity, every day an hour to walk. You don’t even have to run.
The ninth. There are many foods for diabetics, but even when consuming them, do not overeat. The gastroenterologist and nutritionist Svetlana Berezhnaya recalls that there are sorbitol and xylose in diabetic sweets. They affect weight. It’s much healthier to eat some honey, for example. Eat fractionally, varied, 4 times a day. It’s very important to get enough iodine, since thyroid diseases make diabetes worse. Buy iodized salt and seaweed. Helps prevent the development of the disease zinc. He is in mustard and nuts. A handful of nuts per day helps insulin to be absorbed, and immunity – to be in good condition.
Tenth. Diabetes can occur for many years without symptoms, and both patients and therapists explain fatigue, drowsiness, and stress, VVD (vegetative-vascular dystonia), and chronic fatigue syndrome. It is sometimes found by chance. In this case, treatment and constant medical supervision is still required. It is necessary for everyone who, when taking blood from a finger, has a sugar level greater than 6 mmol / L. The normal indicator is up to 5.6. Above is prediabetes. That is, active preventive measures, donating blood for sugar every six months are already needed.
Overweight and high waist are diabetes companions
Whether you are overweight can be determined by the body mass index. The weight of a person needs to be divided by the height in meters squared. For example, if the patient is 170 cm tall, that is, 1.7 (in meters) is multiplied by 1.7. Then we divide the patient’s weight by the resulting figure. The normal body mass index is 24, and this is the upper limit of the norm. If the BMI is from 25 to 29, time to lose weight. The waist volume plays a role. The upper limit of the norm is 93 for men and 79 for women. If the waistline is greater than this figure, the risk of developing diabetes mellitus doubles.
Diabetes can be determined indirectly by the condition of the hair. They become thin, fall out, grow slowly. Pay attention to it. If drastic measures are required, consult a trichologist, but only after an endocrinologist. Choose the right care products: shampoo, masks, balms.
If diabetes is not treated, then tissue changes, neurological disorders, blindness, and diabetic coma may occur. A few decades ago, amputation, due to violations of trophic foot, was commonplace.
Around the world, 8% of people suffer from diabetes, and these are only cases identified. The more developed the country, the more food the population consumes, the more people suffer from diabetes. In Ukraine – 2 million patients.
Diabetes Health Food List
We recommend leaning on vegetables and olive oil. It’s good to eat spinach salad in season. Give up white bread. Choose bread from wholemeal flour. Seafood is an essential component of your menu. It can be mussels, fish, squid. If there are enough of them in the diet, you will not have problems with the thyroid gland. In addition, selenium contained in fish improves the condition of pancreatic cells, and phosphorus is an indispensable tool for the heart and blood vessels. As for meat, it is better to prefer rabbit pork and beef. These meats are considered dietary, so your weight will not increase.
If you have diabetes, do not despair. It can be controlled. We recommend paying special attention to children’s health if you are sick with this disease.
Diabetes and pregnancy
If you are pregnant, get registered as soon as possible. Tune in to the positive, that give birth to a healthy baby on time. The doctor will adjust the treatment regimen for diabetes. During pregnancy, vascular lesions can progress. Kidneys suffer, therefore, in pregnant women with diabetes, edema is more pronounced than without it. 60% of women develop gestosis. The risk of miscarriage is increased in such women by 2 times.
A child can be born large, swollen, or, conversely, lightweight (10% of cases). As a rule, women diagnosed with diabetes are referred to a cesarean. But with good compensation for the disease, natural birth is possible.
You can not get pregnant in such cases:
- With a combination of diabetes with Rh conflict.
- If earlier a sick mother had children with congenital malformations. Their probability increases with the age of the mother. If diabetes lasts longer than 15 years, then the frequency of birth of children with congenital anomalies increases by 3 times. Especially often, kidney damage occurs.
Diabetes during pregnancy may occur for the first time. This often happens in women in labor over 35 years old. Every 30 women suffer from diabetes mellitus. It is compensated by the appointment of insulin. After 20-30 years, such women develop diabetes as a chronic disease. The risk increases in obese women. Compliance with the recommendations of the endocrinologist will help to safely give birth to a woman with diabetes pregnant, as well as with type 1 and type 2 diabetes diagnosed before pregnancy. Always consult a doctor!