Under the muscle tone means the presence of resistance of muscle in the production of passive motor acts in the articular joint. Estimated myotonus. Additionally, conduct a comparison of the symmetry in some areas, for example, on both upper or lower extremities, back.
Myotonus has a dependency on:
- elasticity of mittani;
- the state of neuro-muscular transmission;
- peripheral neural fibers;
- spinal motoneurons;
- cerebral centers of the regulation of motor acts in the basal ganglia, reticular formation, cerebellum and trunk of the vestibular apparatus.
Therefore, the causes of the disorder myotonus can be incorporated in the damage to the muscle itself, as well as in developed patronesse NS at all levels. There are two groups of disorders myotonus – hypotonia (low) and hypertonicity (increased).
Disorder of muscle tone can occur due to damage to the mechanism of neuro-muscular transmission.
The concept of hypertonicity of muscles
This patsatsiya is not separate nosological unit, and only a symptom of many diseases, the base of which is a neurological problem.
In neurological practice, there are two types of militarians: spastic (or pyramidal) and the plastic (or extrapyramidal).
The first option develops in the event of damage to the structural components of the pyramidal system. In the case of lesions of the Central neuron is formed spastic form. Then passive motor actions are performed with great difficulty (resistance), however, only at the initial stage of the movement. Then the limb lends itself with ease, another name for the symptom of “jackknife”. Well visualized be the sign when produced movement at a fast pace. Because the cause of the failure of mo Torno centre of the brain, then these disorders are usually acquired generalized character, i.e. a group of damaged muscle fibers, for example, predatory galanoy parts, in the arch of the foot. A vivid example in this case will be hypertonicity in patients who have suffered a stroke with a lesion of the cerebral motor centers.
The plastic variant is marked with the defeat of extrapyramidal NS (complex structural components of the brain and neural conduction paths providing for the regulation of spontaneous motor acts, for example, the maintenance of spatial position, production of metodisty during laughing, crying, etc.). This type is called muscle rigidity, spasticity, differing from a constant resistance to passive motomaster, not only at the initial stage of the movement. A typical feature is the solidification of the limb in the position which gives the patient the so-called “waxy flexibility.” With the rapid manufacture of passive movements is a common symptom of “gears” – specific periodic resistance to passive movement acts. A vivid example of this variety Parkinson’s disease.
In certain embodiments, in case of damage to the pyramidal and extrapyramidal systems sometimes forms mixed species, for example, when tumors in the brain.
Muscular hypertonicity in adults
Increased myotonus in the adult organism does not always show the disease. It may also occur as a physiological process. In medicine hypertonicity called persistent increase, and short-lived disorder called muscle spasm.
Fizioprotsedury should be called:
- Strain and fatigue of muscles. Occurs when a long and large amount of labor, then develops an energy deficit that leads to “freezing” the muscles at the time of the reduction. Example: spasserovannye calf muscles leg pain after a long run.
- Long stay in uncomfortable or monotonous situation with increased load on some muscle group. Pathomechanism similar to the previous view. Example: spasserovannye develops in the muscles of the neck with a long presence for PC, back after working in the garden.
- Protective response to pain. Protective muscle spasticity of the anterior abdominal wall in the case of diseases of the digestive organs, myspaceprofile spine damage cervical, thoracic, lumbar vertebrae.
- Stress and injury.
- Acute disorders of cerebral circulation – produces hypertonicity of the muscle groups of the hands and feet, the front part of the tongue.
- Cancer and vaseline postprocess the brain and spinal cord.
- Parkinson’s Disease.
- Cerebral palsy, etc.
Treatment of militarians involves two basic areas:
- The elimination of the root cause of the disease.
- Correction of the effects of root causes.
To heal from the root cause is not always possible. Here to facilitate atasteanime of the patient and to relieve muscle rigidity, is only able to complex therapy in the form of a combination of medicines, massage, physical therapy, psycho-, physio – and reflexotherapy.
Increased myotonus of infants acts normal. During the 40 weeks of fetal formation of the baby is in the fetal position inside the uterus, because the newborn has arms and legs tightly pressed to the calf. Usually this condition the musculature is kept for one to three months of life. This in pediatric practice is called physiological hypertonicity newborn. Later increased tone may indicate severe pathology of cerebral palsy.
The symptomatic picture presented by the following manifestations:
- in 1 month or earlier confidently holds the head;
- in three months remains clenched fists (not straightens the finger to keep the toy);
- head tilt to one side;
- in the control of automatic reflex moves and supports the child puts the leg on the full foot, not just socks;
- shake the chin part;
- the tilting the head back with duhopodemnoe the flexure;
- often spits up.
Torticollis is sometimes caused by an increased tone of the sternocleidomastoid muscle.
The first requirement in treatment is to eliminate the cause. And then is assigned to symptomatic treatment, including massage and remedial gymnastics.
Additional measures are:
- warm relaxing bath and thisprocedure;
- drug therapy;
- exercises on the fitball.