The thyroid is a small gland weighing less than 30 g looks like a butterfly with unfolded wings. It is located under the Adam’s Apple in the anterior region of the neck consists of two lobes surrounding the trachea.
The thyroid gland belongs to the endocrine system which produces, stores and delivers in the blood of biologically active substances – hormones.
The thyroid gland consists of many tiny follicles. These follicles or vesicles filled with a viscous mass containing thyroid hormones, having a high concentration of iodine. This gland contains approximately 80% of iodine in the body.
If the diet lacks iodine, you can develop a goiter (enlarged thyroid gland). In children with iodine deficiency in the body is delayed mental, physical and sexual development (cretinism).
Thyroid hormones the thyroid gland.
Thyroid hormones referred to as T3 – triiodothyronine, OT3 – reverse T3 and T4 – thyroxine. Figures T3 and T4 indicate the number of iodine atoms contains a molecule of the hormone. Hormones OT3 T3 is converted from T4, and it happens mostly in other body tissues outside the thyroid gland. When thyroid hormones required by the body, the thyroid gland secretes T4 into the bloodstream, and blood this hormone goes into every cell of the body. The thyroid gland also produces the hormone calcitonin, which regulates calcium in the blood.
As the accelerator pedal adjusts the speed of the car, as thyroid hormones regulate the metabolism in the body (the chemical processes that form energy and new tissue). And this way thyroid hormones promote normal growth and repair of tissues, maintain body temperature and energy supply of the muscles, regulate the heart rate.
Thyroid hormones help the liver to removed from the blood excessive triglycerides and low-density lipoproteins (bad cholesterol). First, cholesterol enters the bile and then into feces. With a lack of thyroid hormone can increase the level of bad cholesterol and decrease the level of good cholesterol (high density lipoproteins).
With the help of thyroid hormones stimulates secretion of digestive juices and peristalsis (the contraction of the walls of the digestive system). Thus, while excess thyroid hormone may experience rapid chair, and the shortage of – constipation.
Thyroid function is regulated by the division of the brain called the hypothalamus. When acknowledging the need of the hypothalamus in thyroid hormones, it signals the pituitary gland, which is located in the base of the brain above the sky. Then, the pituitary gland begins to secrete into the blood the hormone TSH (thyrotropin), which stimulates the thyroid gland.
The doctor can determine the condition of the thyroid levels of thyroid hormones and TSH. The dysfunction of the thyroid gland are quite common, so it is very important to check it. If you have suspicions about thyroid function, you should contact an experienced endocrinologist for advice.
Diseases of the thyroid gland.
Causes of thyroid disease are: lack of iodine in the diet, physical and mental stress, genetic abnormalities, infections, and other diseases (usually autoimmune) or side effects of drugs. The disease may manifest with an enlarged thyroid (goiter) – diffuse or nodular. Usually the goiter is benign, but should be seen by a doctor, as he sometimes indicates cancer. The risk of cancer more susceptible to those who have relatives suffered from thyroid cancer or they themselves who have undergone radiotherapy in the head and neck.
When thyroid disease usually it produces too few or too many hormones. Reduced its function is called hypothyroidism, and an increased – hyperthyroidism.
Thyroid disease develop gradually and without symptoms, so people may get sick years and not know about it. But early diagnosis depends largely on the success of the treatment.
Common diseases of the thyroid gland are: graves ‘ disease and goiter Hashimoto’s. These autoimmune disease because the immune system treats healthy cells as foreign and attacks them. In women, the goitre of Hashimoto’s occurs 6 times more often than men and it usually leads to hypothyroidism. And graves ‘ disease in women is 8 times more often than men, and usually accompanied by hyperthyroidism.
Examination of the thyroid gland.
How often do adults need to carry out a preventive examination of the thyroid gland? In the absence of complaints doctors recommend to examine the thyroid once a year 1. In identifying endocrinological diseases can assign periodic inspections. If it turned out an underactive thyroid, tend to make the analysis on antibodies that are attacking her. If it is a function of increased – administered radioisotope scanning. But this procedure is contraindicated during pregnancy and lactation. For nodular goiter may require a biopsy to check for cancer.
It is very important to examine the thyroid gland in newborns. Usually a few days after the birth of the newborn analysis to take some blood and check his thyroid disease. If pathology is detected, the necessary action is taken.
Symptoms of thyroid disease.
Typical symptoms of hyperthyroidism: weight loss, increased excitability, anxiety, irritability, mood swings, increased heart rate, menstrual disorder, frequent stools, exophthalmia, insomnia, muscle weakness, thin and brittle hair.
Typical symptoms of hypothyroidism are: weight gain, physical and mental lethargy, depression, fatigue, increased sensitivity to cold, memory loss, menstrual irregularities, hoarseness and hoarseness of voice, constipation, hair loss.
It is worth remembering that some symptoms can occur for other reasons, so it is best to consult a doctor.
Thyroid gland what treatment is required.
Hyperthyroidism symptoms such as rapid heartbeat, anxiety and muscle tremor may facilitate drug therapy. Sometimes, the thyroid gland to produce fewer hormones, conduct and destruction of its cells or remove it surgically.
In hypothyroidism, as well as people who have removed the thyroid gland, given oral hormone T4 every day. Dose is regulated by the physician in monitoring the patient.
When thyroid cancer for the treatment are: chemotherapy, iodine radionuclides, drugs. Sometimes resort to surgical intervention.
During pregnancy. With reduced thyroid function during pregnancy, although sometimes there are complications, but most women born healthy children. It is extremely important that the mother received hormone therapy of substitution, as at first, her body is the only source of thyroid hormones to the fetus.
Prevention of thyroid diseases.
To prevent thyroid disease helps proper nutrition. For the production of thyroid hormones required iodine. If you get it from food? An excellent source of this vital element are saltwater fish and other seafood. Meat and vegetables the amount of iodine depends on the chemical composition of the soil.
The trace mineral selenium is also very important – it is part of enzymes that convert the hormone T4 to the hormone T3. A lot of selenium in seafood, eggs, cabbage. In meat, dairy products and vegetables the amount of selenium depends on the chemical composition of the soil.
If you suspect thyroid disease should not self-medicate, and it is better to consult a doctor. Although thyroid gland is small organ, but very important, so take care of your thyroid, take care of her health.