Pathological lesions in the paranasal sinuses are influenced by injuries, mechanical damage, inflammatory processes. Cyst of the frontal sinus is the most common complication of chronic frontal sinusitis. Localization is the frontal sinus. Has its own wall of connective tissue and internal secretory content.
At autopsy can be defined as a pyogenic nature of the internal liquid and mucocele (mucus without attaching a secondary bacterial flora). Not always present characteristic symptoms of the cyst of the frontal sinus, in most cases, treatment is required only with the rapid growth of the lesion and its festering. Surgery and removal are carried out in stationary conditions in a planned manner.
The mechanism of formation of cysts of the left and right frontal sinus
The mechanism of the initial formation of the cyst left and right frontal sinuses are identical. Anatomically in these sinuses is present in the epithelial layer, which has a tendency to a fast recovery. Located deep in the epithelium of the glands produce the mucus necessary for normal health of tissues of the nasal Airways. The secret is given from the glands through ducts. With difficulty this process on the background of swelling of the tissues occurs blockage. Starts the process of accumulation of mucus inside the capsule. As production fluid in the gland does not stop, there are prerequisites for active and rapid growth of tumors.
Such abnormalities, affected individuals aged 10 to 25 years. At older ages, the intensity of work of glands of the frontal sinus is reduced, accordingly, eliminates the risk of blockage of their ducts.
Clinical picture: symptoms and diagnosis
The clinical picture develops gradually.
Typical symptoms of cysts of the frontal sinus may include the following symptoms:
- painful headaches, increasing when tilting the head forward and to the side;
- dryness of the nasal passage on the affected side;
- shortness of nasal breathing;
- purulent discharge from the nose.
A provisional diagnosis of cyst of the frontal sinus requires a radiographic study of the paranasal sinuses. Most often it is diagnosed accidentally, when carrying out surveys related to other diseases.
Palpation projection of the frontal sinus, the doctor can feel the tumor with testovatoy consistency. When pressed, a patient may feel a slight crackle or crunch. For large size of the neoplasm may be some displacement of the eyeball within the eye socket. Also the person experiences discomfort when blinking and tension of the eye muscles. In severe cases, percutaneous fistula is formed, which is separated or mucous purulent contents with an unpleasant odor.
A typical symptom may be the complaint of double vision (any object is visually perceived in the double size). Tearing, decreased visual acuity, impaired perception of certain colors – all these can be symptoms of cysts of the frontal sinus in an advanced stage.
To diagnose in addition to radiography is carried out puncture of the frontal sinus, the sensing of Lansberge MRI. It is necessary to exclude malignant etiology, and differentiated from a dermoid cyst.
Possible treatment is surgery to remove
Conservative treatment in this pathology is absolutely useless. Even after the discharge of accumulated secretion, the cyst does not subside and is not subjected to reverse development. Possible treatment of cysts of the frontal sinus is performed only surgically. The standard operation to remove a cyst of the frontal sinus is carried out in a planned manner.
Surgery can be carried out with the help of frontlinie and endoscopy. The second method is the most safe and less traumatic. But it is not suitable for use in larger tumor size. In the early stages of the pathology, its removal can be performed even on an outpatient basis with local anesthesia.