The greatest harm can cause 3 types of parasites – flukes, tapeworms and roundworms. Worms are divided by habitat for intestinal and extraintestinal forms. Intestinal helminths have a complex structure, mainly propagated outside the human body, ascarids, pinworms, tapeworms.
They live only in the large and small intestines, feeding on mucous membranes of the body.
Main types of worms
In the human body can be inhabited by worms of different species, they affect not only the stomach but other organs.
Depending on the environment fall into several major classes:
- 1. geohelminths – the larvae live in the stool, human infection occurs through oral, vectors can be flies;
- 2. bioelement as an intermediate host choose the body of fish or animals as larvae get into the human body, where they begin to develop actively;
- 3. pin worms – small, is transmitted by contact through the objects of common use.
Worms infected almost the entire population – so say studies by the who. Many people are not aware of the presence of helminths and protozoa, blamed the malaise on a cold or food poisoning. But sometimes people can see Calais, the whole worm or parts of it. Better to be screened regularly to detect foreign organisms in the body.
To settle in the intestine and protozoa – Giardia, Cryptosporidium. Despite the primitive structure, to get rid of them is difficult – they grow quickly, are fast becoming impervious to drugs. On the background of infection develop various infectious diseases.
Extraintestinal forms can move throughout the body using the bloodstream. Most of these helminths affect cells of the liver, pancreas, spleen. At least – the brain, respiratory organs and eyes, lymph nodes, soft tissue. Diagnosed with this form of infection is difficult to deliver, because it is not always possible to detect these worms in the feces of man.
Cestodes and trematodes ingested with undercooked meat and fish, dirty water. Other parasites can be transmitted at non-observance of hygienic rules.
In 80% the infection of helminthiasis is due to dirty and poorly washed hands of food of plant origin.
Looks like a worm in humans? Parasites in the form of worms, mostly light colored. Their length ranges from several millimeters up to 2-3 meters.
Often there are round worms in children.
- roundworm – have a fusiform structure, length of females up to 40 cm out from the body with feces;
- pinworms – small worms are grayish-white color, their length does not exceed 10 mm, adults and eggs can be detected in the feces;
- hookworms the hookworms – similar – parasites, by length-not more than 15 mm, have sharp teeth;
- whipworm – a worm with a length of about 5 cm, pure white color.
1. Enterobiasis – lose contact with parasites pinworms. Helminthiasis refers to epidemiological diseases – with the infection of one person quickly infected all contact with him person. Pinworms enter the body orally. Enterobiasis is accompanied by severe itching in the anus, which often leads to re-samsarajade.
2. Trihozefalez – infection with whipworm. It lives in the initial part of the small intestine and feeds on the tissues of the mucous membrane and blood. A large gathering starts severe diarrhea, possible rectal prolapse.
3. Hookworm impress the 12-duodenum. Larvae enter through skin contact with soil, bloodstream are carried to all internal organs, the lungs. The man starts coughing together with sputum larvae penetrate the digestive system. After the defeat of the blood vessels the worm injects a special enzyme that prevents the blood clotting.
4. Roundworm can move freely through the body, the person ingests the parasite eggs along with dirty vegetables, unpurified water. Carriers of the eggs of flies can.
Symptoms of helminthiasis
The main danger of worm infestation is prolonged absence of signs of infection. When symptoms occur, they are similar to other habitual diseases. The person starts to make their own cough drops, temperature, intestinal disorders and constipation, but the self does not give positive results.
Externally-infection with parasites can manifest in the form of acne, seborrhea, cracked heels, zaedy in the corners of the mouth, papilloma. In women can trigger the allocation of whiter, there are pockets of inflammation in the ovaries, your periods are painful and irregular. With prolonged infection appear fibroma, myoma, mastopathy. Men helminthiasis lead to impotence, prostatitis, adenoma of the prostate gland. The worms provoke the formation of sand and stones in the kidneys and bladder.
Symptoms of infestation in humans:
- frequent colds, respiratory infections;
- chronic inflammation of respiratory system and paranasal sinus;
- constipation, diarrhea, flatulence;
- joint and muscle pain;
- sharp fluctuations in weight;
- manifestation of anemia.
Granuloma – a clear sign of infection. In these tumors accumulate the ruined eggs, they are formed on the walls of the intestines, lungs, liver, uterus. The constant poisoning the parasites develop cancer. Severe intoxication leads to allergic reactions, hives, eczema. Changing the mental state of the person aggression gives way to apathy, appears chronic fatigue, worries insomnia.
The main feature – the worms in the stool. You can see them visually or detect with the help of special analysis.
Children and parasites
Worms in children is diagnosed more often than in adults. The child pulls in a mouth dirty hands, toys, loves to communicate with the animals, playing in the sand and earth. According to statistics, the worms each have a third child who attends preschool. Children often discover the pinworm, Ascaris, Giardia and Toxocara.
Giardia – small parasites that affect even newborns. When infection starts severe diarrhea, there is a high temperature, pain in the abdomen. Many parents blamed the signs on symptoms of intestinal infection, the treatment does not give proper result, the bot goes into the chronic stage.
Toxocara live in the body of cats and dogs, come out with feces. Babies are infected when playing in the sandbox or the ground after contact with stray animals. These worms look like white threads of different thickness and length. Large photo with description of the parasite can be used as a visual aid when communicating with a child on the need to wash hands thoroughly.
A consequence of infection – increased aggression, constant whims, apathy. The child begins to get tired quickly and have poor quality of sleep. The main symptom that allows us to learn about the infection is itching near the anus, the presence of parasites in the stool.
Grinding at night teeth does not apply to signs of infestation of the child.
Helminth infection dangerous for a child developing chronic diseases, impaired immune system functioning, problems with appetite and weight. When infected with whipworm, the child begins development delay, severe anemia.
Because the human body can be more than 200 different worms, there is no single method of treatment. Modern diagnostics help to accurately identify exactly which worms are present in the body, allowing you to assign adequate therapy. Most often the man find the parasites of various types.
The main groups of drugs:
- 1. Praziquantel, Piperazine, Pyrantel – drugs paralyze the motor activity and muscle, the parasites come from feces;
- 2. Albendazole – disrupts the digestive processes of worms that leads to their death;
- 3. Mebendazole – inhibits the uptake of glucose by worms, without which they lose their vitality;
- 4. Levamisole is a drug with combined actions, disrupts biochemical processes and has a paralyzing effect.
Drugs only affect the adult stages, the larvae and eggs they are powerless. Therefore, for complete disposal needs to undergo several courses of antiparasitic therapy.
Worms in the body can cause many serious diseases – chronic diseases of the digestive organs and respiratory, nervous disorders, glaucoma, tumors of different origin. To avoid infection with helminths is simple – wash your hands often, on the street use of antibacterial agents, to expose meat and fish high-quality heat treatment, do not drink unboiled water, to parboil all the vegetables and fruits without exception.