26.09.2020

Acute liver failure Causes and symptoms

Acute liver failure is a serious human condition, associated with a rapidly developing loss of its important liver functions, leading to serious complications or death.Should consider in more detail the causes, symptoms and treatment of the specified condition of the patient.

Causes and symptoms acute liver failure

One of the most important organs of the human body is the liver.

It performs several important functions, including:

  • participation in the process of digestion;
  • detoxification of poisons of various etiologies;
  • as a depot of blood;
  • blood;
  • regulation of acid-base balance etc.

Many essays from leading physicians dedicated to serious issues for patients. One of them is acute liver failure. It occurs in severe damage of the liver cells and can lead to brain edema, sepsis, acute pulmonary insufficiency, hepatic encephalopathy, coma, various metabolic disorders and untimely death.

You can call the main reasons that lead to the specified threat condition:

  • viral hepatitis;
  • overdose of drugs (antibiotics, anticonvulsants and analgesics, etc.);
  • acute poisoning by various toxins (poisonous mushrooms, alcohol, arsenic, phosphorus, etc.);
  • cancer;
  • various metabolic disorders;
  • diseases of liver veins, etc.

Regardless of the causes of acute liver failure, it is characterized by its rapid development within a few days.

The main manifestations can be considered:

  • weakness, General malaise;
  • yellowing of eye sclera and skin;
  • pain in the right upper quadrant;
  • nausea, vomiting and other digestive disorders;
  • fever;
  • respiratory failure;
  • disorientation;
  • emotional instability.

With the rapid increase in liver failure may experience the following serious complications: Central nervous system intoxication, kidney failure, brain swelling, severe internal bleeding, hemorrhagic syndrome, gepatogenna encephalopathy.

Sometimes, acute liver failure, the symptoms of which do not exist, may be established only by means of instrumental and laboratory studies.

Treatment of the disease

The patient with acute liver failure require urgent intensive care in the intensive care unit.

Treatment is individual, complex and may include:

  • detoxification of the body;
  • restore acid-base balance and water-salt metabolism;
  • the elimination of the causes leading to acute liver failure;
  • functional recovery of the body support;
  • maintaining basic body functions;
  • the elimination of complications that developed along with liver failure.

Detoxification of the patient is performed with the use of amino acid dialysis, plasmapheresis, it, hemofiltration. With simultaneous renal failure the patient is hemodialysis. For various internal bleeding that often occurs on the background of acute liver failure, is assigned to heparin, cimetidine or famotidine intravenously.

Cerebral edema applied protein drugs: concentrated plasma, albumin, diuretic. Anti-inflammatory treatment of this condition is ensured by intravenous introduction of prednisolone.

Antipyretic therapy is mostly physical methods of cooling do not apply analgesics that may aggravate serious condition of the patient. If necessary, is respiratory support breathing with oxygen.

To eliminate cardiovascular failure or to prevent its occurrence will allow the use of cardiac glycosides and vascular preparations. With an excited mental condition of the patient can be applied sedatives: sibazon, chlordiazepoxide, promethazine.

Acute liver failure can cause liver cirrhosis and ascites, severe complication of which is spontaneous bacterial peritonitis.

To prevent the patient from dangerous complications, it is necessary to carry out a number of preventive measures that are taking drugs:

  • lactulose – to prevent penetration of bacteria from the intestinal environment;
  • antibiotics from the group of cephalosporins or fluoroquinolones.

In severe cases, transplantation of a healthy liver and the events in her healing.

Thus, acute liver failure, in many cases, arises from the unreasonable way of life: alcohol abuse, uncontrolled intake of medicines, poor diet, inactivity, weight gain, etc. Easier to prevent the specified severe condition than later to treat it.

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