One of the most unpleasant abnormalities of the digestive system – gallstone disease. When the disease is in the gall bladder and its ducts are formed stones. The causes of this condition is difficult to understand, because in most people it occurs in a latent form without symptoms. According to research conducted in the developed world, gallstone disease is observed in 15% of cases. Its prevalence is affected by gender and age of patients.
In women, this disease occurs 2 times more often than men. It grounded the hormones included in the contraception, pregnancy and childbirth. One of the five cases women over 40 years, and in men gallstone disease is manifested only in one case out of 10. People from 50 to 69 years, the prevalence reaches 23%, older than 70 years was 50%.
Gallstone disease occurs because of stagnation. By reducing the activity of the gallbladder he stops periodically to get rid of the bile. The bile thickens, it becomes viscous and eventually forms stones.
The disruption of this process occurs for different reasons:
- Sex differences. It has been proved that women suffer more often than men, as in women’s life there are conditions such as pregnancy and childbirth, which alter the functioning of the body. Estrogens that the body produces in high doses, increases the absorption of cholesterol from the intestine and increased secretion of bile.
- Age factor.
- Genetic causes.
- Ethnic reasons.
For these reasons the development of pathology of the gallbladder cannot be influenced, but there are factors that may alter each to reduce the risk of disease:
- Food. Neglecting a healthy diet, eating a lot of sugar and fat, fast weight loss and it’s set.
- Obesity. This disease leads to increased cholesterol levels first in blood and then in the bile.
- A passive lifestyle.
- Diuretics and birth control pills, taking hormones increase the risk of disease.
- Infectious diseases and reduced muscle tone of the gall bladder.
There are some things man can not affect, but those that are correctable, can significantly reduce the risk of developing this disease.
The symptoms of the disease
In 70 cases of gallstones symptoms do not manifest immediately. In this state it can occur even several years. In such cases, the discovery of stones happens randomly when performing ultrasound diagnosis.
The symptoms appear only when the stones start to move along the cystic canal. Their movements cause inflammation and blockage of the bile ducts.
Depending on the stage of the disease the symptoms will vary. Pain in gallstones are the first tangible signs of it.
- The visible signs are absent, and to confirm the diagnosis, the investigation of bile. In her the crystals of cholesterol, and biochemical analysis reveals his improved concentration and reduction of bile acids. This is the stage of violations of the physico-chemical properties of bile.
- The latent stage. No pain, but gall bladder stones already present. While they are there, it does not cause any sensations. For further diagnosis appoint an ultrasound.
- There are signs of disease. There is an attack of gallstones. This is a severe paroxysmal pain of acute nature, which can last up to 6 hours, and in some cases longer. The pain occur on the right side under the ribs and then spread into the shoulder and neck area. Such pain is provoked abundant techniques fatty and spicy foods and exercise. There is a list of products, after the use of which there is an attack of gallstones. It’s eggs, pastries, soda, alcohol and cream. In addition to the attack there are other symptoms – profuse sweating, chills, nausea and vomiting with impurities bile, increasing the temperature to 38°C.
- The development of complications. At this stage of developing the serious condition.
In order to prevent complications, the first symptoms to immediately consult a doctor.
Treatment of gallstone disease
Treatment methods will depend on the stage at which the disease is. Any methods of therapy in this case will be sent for crushing stones into small factions and removing them from the body.
But first, if you have signs of gallstones, you need to cure them:
- Reception of pharmaceutical drugs aimed at dissolution of stones. But such treatment may not apply in all types of the disease, these medications can not destroy all kinds of stones and are not able in the future to prevent their formation. The use of such medications must take place only in the appointment of their doctor. Maximum effect for a given therapy can be achieved under certain conditions:
- the stone structure must contain the cholesterol;
- the size of stones less than 5 mm;
- the sediments are not older than 3 years;
- the lack of excess weight.
- Direct destruction of stones. Is carried out by direct infusion into the gallbladder strong solvent.
- Crushing of stones with shock waves. For this purpose, laser, electromagnetic and ultrasonic waves that travel in the human body and are right on the rocks.
- The surgical removal. This is the standard method of treatment of disease that has long been proven. It is based on abdominal surgery with an open abdomen. With the advent of new methods of gallstone disease with the help of such operation became much less likely to be treated. When such intervention increases the risk of postoperative complications, whereas with other methods it is much lower.
Cholelithiasis is treated by any of these methods, but in addition to remove stones, to avoid complications, it is necessary diet.
During exacerbation of gallstone disease the body temperature rises, symptoms of biliary colic, the patient feels cold, there is severe pain in the upper quadrant.
In this case, need urgent hospitalization and sometimes surgery. The aggravation of the disease is caused by movement of the stones.
If time does not cure the disease, it can cause problems:
- Acute calculous cholecystitis. This complication is characterized by the fact that, in the absence of treatment the stones clog the exit of the gallbladder, which because of this becomes inflamed. The symptoms of colic are added temperature, weakness and poisoning of the body. Acute cholecystitis is treated only in a hospital and usually surgically.
- Choledocholithiasis. This is a condition in which the stones start to come out of the bubble and clog the bile ducts. With the development of such complications require surgical intervention.
In order to avoid such severe conditions, it is necessary to treat gallstone disease, once diagnosed.
Prevention of the disease
To preventive measures have had the result, you need to eliminate the causes of disease, the occurrence of which a person can influence.
The main preventive measures are:
- Diet. If diagnosed with gallstone disease, the diet prescribed by the doctor is required. Diet is an important item in the treatment of disease and in the subsequent time. Diet implies the transition to a fractional power, this means that the number of meals increased to 5 times. Each admission must be on schedule at designated times, as each visit to the duodenum. bile, which eliminates it from stagnating in the bladder. This disease refers to diseases of the digestive system, therefore, assigned to the standard diet No. 5. It spelled out the list of recommended foods and prohibited.
- Normalization of weight. Maintaining a healthy weight is an important item in the prevention. Gallstone disease is congestion and poor flow of bile. Excessive body weight that is commonly caused by poor diet, lead to deterioration of the gallbladder.
- Physical education. Physical activity promotes activation of all body systems – circulation, acceleration of metabolic processes, including in the gallbladder.
- Reduction or elimination of hormones.
- Abstinence from alcohol and tobacco.
Prevention is necessary for stone disease does not arise, but if she was already cured, it has not appeared again.