Urinary organs, forming a single system, interconnected with each other not just anatomically: the kidneys are connected to bladder via ureters, excretion of urine is through the urethra.
Their blood supply and innervation is via the same artery and nerve plexus, and the drainage and removal of products of metabolism – in the same veins and lymphatic vessels. That is why the pathological process, beginning in one urinary the body that can spread rapidly to other parts of the system in different ways.
The commonality of innervation and provides the appearance of pain, the localization and nature of which are not specific. This means that pain can be manifestations of not one but many diseases, and pulses of pain, are formed in a single body that can radiate (spread) to other areas of the abdomen. That’s why pain in the abdomen or the retroperitoneal space (lumbar) require on the part of the doctor is very careful study and certain techniques of differential diagnosis. The same rigorous approach is necessary in situations where there is pain when urinating in women with different characteristics, localization and intensity.
Pain during urination is possible for many diseases
In what diseases characteristic syndrome pain during urination
In the vast majority of cases in the formation of this pathological symptom in women are the organs responsible for urine excretion. First of all, it’s the bladder and urethra (urethra). It is their diseases, inflammatory or somatic in nature, and injury, accompanied by pain when urinating in women. Furthermore, pathology in the kidneys, along with a whole set of characteristics, can also be supplemented by pain during elimination of urine.
Therefore, all the causes of pain when urinating, developing in women, can be represented as follows:
- bladder inflammation of infectious origin;
- inflammation of the urethra of bacterial nature;
- tuberculosis, tumor of the bladder;
- kidney stones;
- injury of the bladder or urethra.
Cystitis and urethritis is always accompanied by painful urination
How is the inflammation of the bladder
The most common pathology, in which women complain of agonizing cutting pain during urination is cystitis, or inflammation of the mucous membrane of the bladder. In most cases, is diagnosed infectious cystitis that develops in the result of the introduction of the wall of the bladder different types of pathogenic microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Proteus, staphylococci, streptococci).
The consequent characteristic clinical picture known to almost every woman, because the frequency of this pathology is very high. The infection can penetrate into the cavity of the bladder by ascending through the urethra, and hematogenous (via the bloodstream) or lymphogenous (lymphatic vessels) by the way, diseases of the neighbouring internal organs.
Acute cystitis manifests suddenly and rapidly with pronounced symptoms. The pain when urinating in women, acute and sharp, complemented by frequent urination, which are also quite painful. The patient has to go to pee every 10-20 minutes, day and night, while urine excreted is small, and at the end of the act of excreting urine remains nagging sense populatenode bladder. Typical pain syndrome, localized in the lower area of the abdomen, above the pubis.
Changing the characteristics of the urine characteristic of cystitis
The devastating effects of pathogenic organisms to the mucosa leads to the formation of pus and mucus, and in places ulcerated capillaries start to bleed. Therefore, a very characteristic symptom of acute cystitis is the emergence of the impurities in the urine. In her small portions released during urination can be observed pus and mucus that looks like muddy urine and blood, which the urine becomes pink or even red.
The selection process of vital activity of bacteria of different metabolic products, toxins and pyrogenic substances cause the formation of toxic syndrome. It can have different intensity, depending on the number and degree of pathogenicity of the pathogen from the background state of the body and immune system. The heavier the disease, the more severe are diagnosed manifestations of intoxication. The woman in acute inflammation of the bladder complains not only of pain and burning sensation when urinating or the impurities in the urine, but the increase in body temperature, often up to 37-39 degrees, headache, extreme weakness, deterioration of appetite.
The temperature rise can be both minor and reach 38-39 degrees
All these painful signs of acute cystitis should be cause for mandatory treatment to the doctor. But many patients tolerate the disease on the go trying to heal yourself, which can lead to the transition of acute inflammation into the chronic form. It threatens the formation of a prolonged or chronic course of the pathological process in the bladder, which begins to alternate with quiet periods (remission) and relapse.
The symptoms of exacerbations of chronic cystitis are similar to clinical picture of the acute form of the disease, but are more blurred. So, painful urination in women may be accompanied by symptoms of intoxication, and themselves pain nagging and less sharp.
How is urethritis
Urethritis, or inflammation of the mucous membrane of the urethra, in women is diagnosed nearly as often as cystitis. Mostly this disease is of bacterial origin, often combined with sexual infections. Therefore, as pathogens is E. coli or Staphylococcus, but the specific microflora: gonococci, chlamydia, Mycoplasma.
Chlamydia may be the causative agents of urethritis female
Frequent acts of urination when the bladder infection is not so strongly expressed, as in cystitis, tenderness and pain above the pubis. But the process of urination, that is, the passage of urine through the urethra, contributes to strong irritation of the nerve receptors of the mucous membrane. This leads to the fact that it hurts the urethra in women immediately upon excretion of urine, especially in the beginning of the process, and characterized by severe pain, itching and burning in the urethra.
In addition, the combination of urethritis with vaginitis or vulvovaginitis leads to connection characteristic vaginal discharge. These symptoms are more pronounced in acute inflammation, in chronic form, the signs are less intense.
Compared to men, inflammation in the urethra in women is diagnosed less frequently. This can be explained by its anatomical features: the female urethra is wider and shorter than men’s, only 3-5 cm in length, and strictures (narrowing) is not seen. So urine flows more than a wide stream, quickly freeing the bladder and wash it away on your way unwanted microorganisms. But, on the other hand, the penetration of bacteria into the urethra women are more possible, as the anus, vagina and mouth of the urethra is located very close to each other. In addition, pathogenic micro-flora to the short urethra may reach the bladder much faster.
Most often cystitis and urethritis allocated Escherichia coli
Pain in urethra other diseases
Pyelonephritis, one of the most dangerous diseases of the kidneys, has the infectious nature. Pain, localizes in the lumbar region can be so intense that it is radiating: pain recognized by the patients as the bladder and urethra, together with a slight burning sensation. In addition, in case of pyelonephritis there are always signs of intoxication: high body temperature, malaise, headache.
Other pathology, kidney stones,and manifested a characteristic symptom complex. Its main part is the renal colic developing in the movement of stones in the urinary tract. The patient can not lie quietly as it hurts in any position, piercing and cutting pain in his side tormented her until the stone ceases to scratch and injure the mucosa of the urinary channels.
A gradual movement of stones from the renal pelvis into the ureter and the bladder ends the final leg of the journey in the urethra. While severe pain during removal of the rocks as it descends down, ending with a sharp pains when urinating in women and men. Irritation and microtrauma of the mucous membrane of the urethra caused by stones, unable to move in the inflammatory process due to subsequent infection. So often the release of stones in urolithiasis may lead to urethritis, which is accompanied by pain and a burning sensation when urinating in women.
All kinds of stones in the bladder and urethra and cause severe pain syndrome
There are other pathology that the physician must necessarily be excluded during differential diagnosis. So, painful urination in women may be a manifestation of tuberculosis or malignant bladder tumors. In addition, this symptom may be an indirect sign of pathology from the neighboring internal organs. For example, lesions of the bladder with the appearance of a sharp pain when the urine excretion sometimes becomes secondary when adnexitis (inflammation of appendages) or parametritah (inflammation of the tissues surrounding the uterus).
Diagnosis of many pathologies requires not only clarification of the complaints of the patient and a thorough inspection. Mandatory laboratory tests of urine (General analysis on the microflora), blood tests, clinical and biochemical. Confirm or refute assumptions doctor about the causes of pain during urination are able and instrumental methods of diagnosis: ultrasound, CT, MRI, x-ray methods. Only after the diagnosis each patient is assigned an individual treatment plan.
Pain during urination in women may be a manifestation of adnexitis
How to treat pain with urination
Despite the fact that the painful urination and frequent urination are symptoms of many diseases, yet there are General principles of treatment.
They can be represented as follows:
- compliance with gentle treatment patient, the preferred bed rest and the exclusion of physical activity;
- special drinking regime with increasing daily volume of 2.5-3 liters of fluid;
- diet with the exception of foods that irritate the urinary tract or the formation of stones;
- etiotropic therapy is directed at eliminating the causes of pathology (e.g., in infectious diseases of mandatory antibiotics);
- symptomatic therapy consists of prescribing different mechanisms of action that resolves certain signs of pathologies (antispasmodics, diuretics, antiseptics);
- the methods of traditional medicine.
Typically, medical scheme, drawn up according to these rules, is effective in most cases. Most importantly, the woman turned to the specialist in time with the appearance of the initial symptoms of the disease.