Types of bradycardia in children, causes and treatment

Problems of the heart in most cases doctors found in the first months of life the newborn. But even a healthy kid in the process of life sometimes diagnose noise and arrhythmia caused by stress and viral and bacterial infections.

брадикардия сердцаBradycardia in children as a confirmed diagnosis is less common than other heart disease.

What is sinus bradycardia a heart?

In practice of doctors of cardiorheumatologists upon detection of the disease and determining its severity, prescribe treatment, or monitor the state of the child within a few months, and years. In such a situation parents, it is important to independently monitor the health and complaints of their children, to pass doctor complete and accurate information.

To understand all the nuances associated with this topic, it is important to understand what it is – bradycardia in children, and what kind of complications she’s dangerous. The disease is characterized by a reduced number of heart beats per minute. Different age groups have their own standards of heart rate:

  • for babies from the first days of life before the year is 100-120 beats per minute;
  • from 3 to 7 years – 80-90 beats;
  • from 8 years to adolescence 70-80 beats.

измерение пульса ребенкуIf the heart rate deviates from these numbers by 20 or more units, diagnosed of sinus bradycardia the heart. What is it in children? This reduced the number of contractions of the heart muscles compared to normal despite the fact that sinus rhythm is preserved.

A similar picture is observed by doctors in athletes who regularly perform strength exercises with loads.

Critical is a picture of when the heart beats 40 times a minute. At this heart rate you need a thorough examination and special treatment.

Sinus bradycardia in a child has a complex mechanism of development associated with changes in the so-called sinus node, which is located in the area of the right atrium, at the confluence into it of the lower and upper hollow veins. It stimulates heart rate, but if the pulses lose the desired frequency, talking about the damage site and changes in the body and pathology.

Threat bradycardia in a child oxygen starvation of all internal organs due to impaired circulation. Particularly affected is the brain. In serious cases, the disease with frequent fainting, breath, development of vascular dystonia, cardiac arrest and sudden death.

Reasons

The occurrence of bradycardia of the heart in children from infancy says about the inherent pathologies of the cardiovascular system. But the disease can appear at any age, including adolescents. To the development of diseases cause by internal factors, external and heredity.

порок сердцаCauses of bradycardia in children:

  • fetal hypoxia;
  • heart disease;
  • congenital diseases of the nervous system;
  • hypothyroidism and other problems in the thyroid gland and endocrine system in General;
  • increased intracranial pressure;
  • intensive growth of the skeleton and muscles;
  • viral and bacterial infections;
  • prolonged hypothermia;
  • medication for a long time;
  • poisoning by nicotine and other poisonous substances and vapors.

Bradycardia in a child 3 years and younger may occur after severe fright, stress, psychological trauma. Usually, such States are reversible. To cause slowed rate can long poor diet, obesity, playing sports professionally.

Symptoms in children

Not always the disease at initial stage is manifested typical signs. Symptoms of bradycardia in children depends on the reason for development. Pathology of the heart and the nervous system give a bright symptoms, infection and stress are more blurred and reversible. The frequency and intensity of symptoms they say on the form of the disease.

Easy form

Not dangerous to life and health, often is a normal condition in asthenic physique. Mild bradycardia in a child is manifested only slow heart rhythm. Heart rate to 50-60 beats at a normal feeling. Possible manifestations of fatigue after physical exertion, pale skin, headache. Bradycardia in a child 10 years in a mild form can occur as a result of age-related changes in the body.

Moderate symptoms

At a moderate bradycardia in a child the symptoms appear more often and more pronounced. While heart rate more than 40 beats, but less than 60, the arrhythmia may be missing. Characteristic symptoms:

  • fatigue and sleepiness;
  • pallor of the skin;
  • dizziness;
  • shortness of breath.

All symptoms aggravated by physical activity. Moderate sinus bradycardia in the child is diagnosed by ECG. Usually the patient feels fine. Form of the disease says about the likely functional changes in the body, requires a serious diagnosis.

брадикардия сердца

The manifestation of bradycardia heart

Expressed

Absolute or severe sinus bradycardia in a child as a diagnosis is rare and is associated with serious disorders of the entire cardiovascular system, endocrine or nervous.

Symptoms:

  • Heart rate 40 beats and less;
  • arrhythmia;
  • memory impairment;
  • poor appetite;
  • sweating;
  • chest pain;
  • swelling of the soft tissues;
  • dizziness, nausea.

Bradycardia in a child 7 years there is poor performance in school and fatigue. This form of the disease is particularly dangerous for babies under 1 year because it can cause the breath and heart failure. Even isolated cases of decrease in heart rate to 40 beats are the reason for the appointment of medical treatment and a thorough examination.

Treatment was required?

экг ребенкуThe disease does not always require medication. The basis of prescription is the survey, which involves General and biochemical blood analysis, ultrasound of heart, ECG.

Treatment of bradycardia in children with mild form in the absence of arrhythmias is carried out by vitamin-mineral complexes and the sustainable supply. Possible to regulate loads.

In the moderate form is also relevant vitamins and a balanced diet with the inclusion in the diet of walnuts, seafood, vegetables rich in fiber. If bugged arrhythmia cardiologist may prescribe Siberian ginseng, black tea.

Bradycardia in a child 6 years of age may occur due to insufficient physical activity, as alone the number of heartbeats below. Parents should encourage children to active games.

Severe form of the disease sometimes requires hospitalization and is always a regular checkups with a cardiologist. The treatment method involves:

  • proper organization of the diet with a high intake of magnesium and potassium, dairy products, cereals, nuts, seafood and vegetables, with a reduction of salty foods;
  • the elimination of infectious diseases chronic (tonsillitis, otitis, etc.);
  • reception sympathomimetics, which stimulate the heart rate (Ephedrine, Caffeine, etc.);
  • the reception of natural drugs as adjuvant therapy (tincture of ginseng, herbs).

In certain situations, young patients are prescribed medications that improve the body’s metabolic rate, correcting electrolyte metabolism, eliminates oxygen starvation of the brain and other organs. In severe cases need surgery to install a pacemaker. Indications for surgery include frequent fainting cardiac arrest and other life-threatening change in health.

Is it possible to engage in child sports?

Bradycardia in children and sport – the concepts are completely compatible. Load moderate character shown in the first two forms of the disease. They must be regular and long. Professional sports can be replaced by the Amateur, stick to the training regime.

Ideal sport shown with decreasing heart rate, is swimming.

Bradycardia in a child 5 years or any other age requires the selection of special exercises with the exception of torso twists. Very useful for long walks in the fresh air for 3 hours a day.

Insights

  1. The decrease in the heart rate in the practice of doctors is rarely diagnosed. In the total share of all diseases of the heart, it is 3.5%.
  2. In the absence of congenital malformations, the progression of the disease can be prevented by correct organization of day regimen and nutrition.
  3. It is important to end to treat all infectious diseases, not to restrict the activity of the child and to include in the menu more fresh vegetables and fruits.
  4. Any self-treatment when the disease is unacceptable.