03.12.2020

Transverse myelitis spinal cord

The inflammatory process that occurs in a particular part of the back, striking white and gray matter. Symptoms appear almost immediately after the occurrence of the inflammatory process. Delayed or poor treatment can lead to the fact that the inflammation will spread to several sections of the spinal cord.

Myelitis is a disruption of the spinal cord caused by inflammation. This disease can affect all parts of the spinal cord or parts of it. It should be noted that the myelitis is a rare disease that often leads to disability. Myelitis of the spinal cord usually affects some part of the spine.

Description, types and types of the disease

Myelitis is a neurological disease in which there are several kinds and types of the disease. Each of the types of myelopathy of the spinal cord has its own characteristics of the disease, symptoms and severity of their symptoms, and also ways of treatment and further prognosis. The disease can appear after the virus and its toxic substances have penetrated to the spinal cord. Inflammation is capable of hitting the body of the spinal cord, and its appendages, nerve endings and roots, and various shells.

Please note! Some types of disease may be typical only for a certain age. Thus, in some type of myelitis can often hurt children or adults, with occurrence of the disease will vary depending on the shape.

Types of myelitis

Myelopathy of the spinal cord is divided into primary and secondary. Myelitis primary is a separate disease of the spinal cord caused by specific pathological viruses. It should be noted that myelitis can be caused by other pathological processes that occur in the human body. Thus, myelitis of the spinal cord may occur due to other inflammatory or infectious process.

On the basis of the intensity of the development of the symptoms of myelitis may be:

  • chronic (disease periodically makes itself felt);
  • sharp;
  • subacute course.

Based on the localization of the disease, myelitis can be:

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  • focal. In this case, the inflammatory process is localized only on site 1, this type is also called a limited;
  • multifocal or diffuse (foci localized at different levels);
  • transverse (foci cover several segments of the spinal cord, which are located close to each other);
  • diffuse or common (in this case affecting the whole spinal cord).

Note! Myelitis often occurs in the thoracic and cervicothoracic spinal segments. Inflammation of the cervical and lumbar are much less common.

The main reasons for the development of the disease

Initial pathogens myelitis can be different factors. Depending on the causes, myelitis divided into:

  • infectious (inflammation can be caused by fungi, bacteria, various parasites, and viruses);
  • traumatic (caused by injury of the spinal cord). Please note! Traumatic myelitis, usually caused by trauma to the spine with subsequent complications. The disease can be hidden, despite the General pain in the spine. Traumatic spinal myelitis may occur after carrying out any operation, with involvement of the cerebrospinal nerve endings;
  • toxic (occurs after chemical intoxication, for example, mercury, lead or heavy metals);
  • myelitis or polio, which develops after vaccination. For the development of post-vaccination myelitis, requires certain predispositions, for example, the presence of Allergy to components of the vaccine. Most often, this type of myelitis occurs after taking oral forms of the vaccine;
  • the disease is caused by any radiation. In most cases, the myelitis may develop after radiation therapy for cancer;
  • myelitis, the cause of which cannot be determined.

Idiopathic myelitis, the cause of which is to determine the doctors can not, as a rule, associated with disorders of the immune system. It should be noted that a weakened immune system and hypothermia can be factors that contribute to the development of pathology. Myelopathy of the cervical spinal cord occurs, as a rule, on a background of cancer of the pharynx, larynx and esophagus.

The symptoms of primary and secondary forms of the disease

Timely and correct diagnosis of the disease allows to improve the forecasts of recovery of the patient. It is worth remembering that the first symptoms very similar to other diseases of the back. Thus, the sooner you will define a disease, the better the forecasts to recovery.

Symptoms of primary myelitis is as follows:

  • Primarily occurs prodrome, which may last 1-3 days, depending on species and type of myelitis. The main features of this period is fever, General fatigue, back pain, muscle, headaches, etc. Transverse myelitis is characterized by pain in the lateral back. This symptom can easily be confused with ordinary lumbar pain.
  • Next occur a tingling pain in different areas of the spinal cord (depending on the localization of the inflammatory process).
  • The following symptoms characterize the lesion of the spinal cord. Such symptoms include reduction in pain, weakness in the legs, reducing reflex reactions, skin sensitivity and extremities, excessive flatulence (gas emissions), difficulty in defecation and urination.
  • At the last stage, on the human body there are pressure sores and ulcers.

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Note! Bedsores are areas of the human body, where cells metabolism slows down. Thus, there are atrophied skin, at first they are pale, white color, and later these areas become cyanotic. As for ulcers, they arise as a result of bedsores. It is worth noting that bedsores and ulcers myelitis of the spinal cord occur regardless of the quality of patient care.

A distinctive feature of primary myelitis is that it has a fairly high rate of the disease. All stages of myelitis may pass in a few days. Despite this, there are cases when the primary myelitis develops over months and more.

As for the secondary symptoms of myelitis, the disease can be difficult to determine. In most cases, it is isolated only at the peak of the underlying disease, on the basis of which develops myelitis. For example, when the chickenpox or measles deterioration and detection of myelitis may occur 3-7 days of occurrence of the underlying disease.

Features of transverse myelitis

Transverse myelitis develops rapidly, the symptoms occur several hours or days. For such a myelitis may be characterized by pain in the neck and back, then begin to manifest pain in the pelvis and lower extremities.

In most cases myelitis occurs due to influenza, measles, and various infectious diseases. In addition, the development of transverse myelitis can be a vaccination. Often the disease is manifested during recovery after infectious diseases. In this case, to detect the pathogen in the nervous system cannot. This indicates that transverse myelitis occurred in the body as a reaction to infectious disease.

Treatment of myelitis

Treatment of myelopathy is complex in the hospital. This can be a variety of treatments both medical and alternative.

Treatment of myelitis by using pharmacological agents includes:

  • Taking antibiotics (especially in cases where the disease was caused by bacteria or viruses).
  • Diuretics.
  • Antipyretics in febrile States the patient.
  • Painkillers (analgesics, which can be narcotic or non-narcotic substances, depending on the strength pain).
  • Other medications that are assigned individually depending on the type of myelitis.
  • In paralysis can prescribe heat treatments, baths and paraffin, and electrical stimulation.

Beyond the acute stage of the disease, doctors perform:

  • physiotherapy, including exercise therapy;
  • massage;
  • vitamin therapy;
  • preventive actions, treatment in sanatoria, health resorts.
Surgery

Surgery is used in the later stages of the disease, when there are purulent foci or very painful symptoms of the disease.

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There are also many ways to treat the disease by using folk methods of treatment. Of course, such actions may give positive results only in cases when they are used as ancillary treatment, not primary.

Please note! Syringomyelia of the spinal cord may cause myelitis. Lightning fast this disease affects the nervous system and brain cells.

Treatment of myelitis should be conducted in a timely manner, it is worth remembering that purulent myelitis often end in deaths. In order to avoid the risk of development of such diseases is timely to go to the doctors for help and to correctly carry out the treatment of infectious diseases.

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