Thanks to the intervertebral discs, the spine flexible and strong. The discs are composed of rounded bones and soft, partly liquid substance, filling them from the inside.
This content must be inside the annulus, but in trauma it comes. This condition is called herniated discs. The most severe variety of this disease is sequestered herniation.
Sequestration is the process of rejection by the body region affected by necrosis. While purposee the core is poured into the spinal canal and compresses the spinal nerves. Due to the pressure occurs swelling and inflammation.
In the damaged area of the blood ceases to get in sufficient quantities, which leads to various complications, such as paralysis of the limbs.
In addition to the severe consequences of the disease, there are a number of symptoms, which sequestered herniation is accompanied by:
- severe pain at the site of injury and throughout the back and in the buttocks, thighs, feet or toes;
- increase discomfort during long sitting or, on the contrary, the movement of the damaged area;
- the pain increases when inhaling or exhaling;
- the patient is difficult to move around in the usual way – the movements are limited, appears limp, but in the future there might be paralysis;
- in the limbs, weakness and numbness;
- some muscles are less supplied with blood, is reduced and atrophy;
- due to nerve damage the functioning of internal organs deteriorating;
- the organs located in the pelvic region, also worse function;
- sometimes there are non-infectious inflammatory processes;
- tendons worse performing reflex movements;
- the muscles of the spine in a stressed state;
- the weakening of the organism on the background of the trauma.
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The symptoms do not always manifest themselves all at the same time, sometimes the symptoms are imperceptible. Manifestation of symptoms depends on the age of the patient and the place which is injured. Sometimes the disease is asymptomatic and the patient doesn’t know what the cause of restricted movement, for example, inability to bend in this disease. Therefore, if a person constantly has one of the following symptoms, you must consult a doctor till the condition has not worsened.
Clinical signs depend on where in the spine the injury has occurred. If in the cervical region, pain may radiate to the shoulder or arm, numb fingers, there are drops in pressure and pain in the head.
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Injuries in the thoracic spine cause pain when breathing or coughing. Sometimes the symptoms were reminiscent of diseases of the heart, the respiratory system or the pancreas.
Sequestered herniation in the lumbar region affect motion of the foot, especially the foot. The most affected organs located in the pelvic region.
The reasons for the development
Various diseases of the spine can be the cause of sequestered herniation. Such diseases include:
- degenerative disorders in articular cartilage;
- curvature of the spine;
- various deviations in the development of bones and spinal column;
- protrusion of the intervertebral discs.
Protrusion of the intervertebral discs
If you have one of the above diseases, it is desirable to avoid additional factors that lead to the formation of intervertebral hernias.
- high physical activity during work or exercise;
- sedentary lifestyle or long stay in position, bend the spine;
- Smoking interferes with the supply of the intervertebral discs with nutrients;
- genetic predisposition to diseases that affect the bone’s strength;
- the lack of balance in the diet and, as a consequence, lack of substances that are useful for vertebrae;
- lifting heavy objects;
- long stay in the cold.
It is important to pay attention to the features of process of formation of herniated discs. Suddenly, it occurs in very rare cases, such as a sudden trauma to the spine.
However, there is another, more common variant of the disease. In this case, the hernia occurs through a number of stages:
- degenerative changes in the walls of the fibrous ring becomes brittle and thin;
- then there is a disc protrusion. It’s a small crack, which may develop into beginning a herniated disc. If at this stage to consult a doctor will prescribed treatment that will prevent sequestered hernia.
In men, the cartilage tissue less strong than in women. And given the propensity for hard work, of the male sex especially need to pay attention to suspicious symptoms and not to neglect the routine inspections at doctors. More concerned about their health should people over the age of 30. At this age, the risk of such injuries increases.
Diagnosis of hernia
The preliminary diagnosis, the technician puts on the basis of a dialogue with the patient. Upon learning of the complaints, the doctor passes to survey and different surveys. In diagnostics checks the reflexes of the tendons and muscle condition. Further diagnosis needs to be confirmed using a special technique: x-ray, MRI, CT or ENMG. Among these methods, radiography is the least informative method of diagnosis. MRI equipment is most accurately able to show injury and the degree of damage to the nerves pulposis core.
Features of treatment
This disease is difficult to treat. One of the main reasons is poor blood circulation in the damaged region. Because of this problem, the treatment of sequestered hernias are medical methods does not always bring results. Medications can affect the diseased part of the spine, if you do not get it through blood circulation.
Because many doctors are inclined to believe that the treatment of herniated discs the most effectively using surgery. However, even in the case of a successful operation, the spine cannot be cured completely. The patient will have to take care of your health and to avoid situations that can cause relapse.
The operation is more important than treatment in such cases:
- the size of the leaked nucleus pulposus of more than 1 centimeter;
- the pressure of the hernia on the spinal cord or nerves strong and can pose a greater threat to the health of the patient;
- limbs are going numb;
- the spinal canal narrows;
- there is a strong inflammation in the damaged region;
- internal organs worse function, particularly for the separation of urine and feces;
- the medication does not produce results for a long period.
If the operation is performed after the patient is partially paralyzed, there is a danger that the sensitivity in the limb will not recover fully.
Drug therapy, physical therapy techniques, reflexology – all these methods belong to conservative treatment.
Among anti-inflammatory medicines are appointed and reducing swelling drugs. If the medications help to relieve the spasms and release the nerve fibers from being crushed and this gives the opportunity to avoid surgery. Recommended tools, which are aimed at improving the blood circulation in the damaged region.
Physical therapy includes techniques such as static magnetic field treatment, ultrasound, and currents of d’arsonval. For example, magnetic therapy good relieve the injured area, eliminates puffiness and inflammation, helps the body in regeneration processes, removes spasms.
Reflexology involves acupuncture. It is important that this impact was conducted by experienced specialist, who knows the location of biologically active points. When properly exposed, the treatment can give good results.
In addition to acupuncture, prescribed therapeutic massage, which should be performed by a specialist. There are types of gymnastics, which help in the treatment of sequestered herniation. Often exercise is recommended to perform in the pool.
When using acupuncture treatment it is important to follow the instructions of the attending physician and to prevent divergence from the described methods of treatment. This method, like any other, is able to help with proper use or to harm, if the recommendations of the doctor neglected.
The operational method is more effective than conservative, but not always applied in this disease. The reason may be the refusal of a patient from surgery, as well as individual contraindications, under which patients should not be subjected to surgical intervention.
When you remove the herniated discs multiple options for minimally invasive procedures.
- Microdiscectomy is an operation in which a damaged intervertebral disc is removed along with a hernia. During this procedure a small incision is made. Duration of surgery – no more than 1.5 hours. The operation is simple, and literally the next day after the operation the patient is allowed to walk.
- Laminectomy – manipulation similar to the previous method, only in this case, is removed not the entire intervertebral disc, and a part of it. This method is obsolete, but is sometimes used in modern times.
- Endoscopic microdiscectomy – more gentle operative interference than the methods described above. The operation is performed with an endoscope through small incisions and remove only purposee the core protruding beyond the intervertebral disc. This procedure is performed much less frequently, even after her and much less risk of complications than other types of surgery. The reason for the unpopularity of expensive equipment, complexity of implementation and, as a result, the high price of surgery.
- Chemonucleolysis – operation, in which purposee core is not removed and dissolved with special chemicals. Not suitable for patient in case of severe fragmentation of the vertebra are also possible side effects. The reaction of doctors to this method of treatment is ambiguous. Although the introduction of the drug chymopapain and eliminates hernia, it is important to consider individual characteristics of the patient before use.
After treatment of intervertebral hernias need to pay sufficient attention to rehabilitation and prevention of recurrence of the disease. Physiotherapy and reflexology – treat treatment and procedures that help during the recovery period. Particularly among these methods are highlighted in physiotherapy, fitness and water therapy.
You also need to follow a special diet prescribed by your doctor. Due to the balanced diet the patient will receive enough nutrients that will promote rapid healing of recent injuries. Diet will help not to gain weight, dangerous for people with lesions of the spine.
If the patient ignores injuries of the spine or go to the doctor over a long period after their occurrence is dangerous to health. No need to abandon the operation if the conservative treatment does not help. The result of disregard for the health of the musculoskeletal system may be different complications: paresis, paralysis and problems with the functioning of the organs. When paralysis of the lower limbs may develop a complication in which the patient is not able to control urine and feces. To prevent the occurrence of such a condition, it is important to consult a doctor and correctly perform the assigned provisions.