In chronic disease there is a constant intoxication of the organism, the person gets tired quickly, out of his mouth comes an unpleasant odor.
- closed – direct connection of the inflamed tooth and the sinus is absent, the reason for such diseases are festering cysts and chronic periodontitis;
- outdoor – the inflamed tooth roots go into the sinus or other formed an open channel for the smooth penetration of harmful microflora.
Change the lining of the sinuses for diagnosis of odontogenic sinusitis developed the following classification:
- serous (catarrhal) – mucous membranes swell, producing the colorless secretions;
- purulent – mucous membranes of the sinuses become inflamed, there is a plentiful formation of purulent masses;
- polypoid at the surface of the walls there are seals that would later grow into polyps;
- purulent-polypous – the most severe form of odontogenic sinusitis, combines symptoms purulent and polosnogo.
Important! In the absence of effectiveso treatment of serous sinusitis rapidly passes into the suppurative.
With regard to the stages of the disease, there are three:
- Acute – a disease progressing rapidly, from its start less than 21 days.
- Subacute – duration of the disease is 21-42 days.
- Chronic – a disease that lasts for longer than 42 days (6 weeks), symptoms are less pronounced but persists, and the tendency to recovery was observed.
And serous, catarrhal and sinus infection starts with an acute stage, but can become chronic. This weakens the immune system, and when joining a new infection chronic sinusitis can regain an acute form.
Causes of dental sinusitis
Most popular vozbuditelei odontogenic sinusitis:
- harmful bacteria diplococci, enterococci, streptococci, staphylococci is the result of the progression of periodontal disease distant teeth of the upper jaw bone partition gradually becomes thinner, the microorganisms are able to freely migrate between the oral cavity and the maxillary sinuses;
- removal of molars and premolars after removal of the teeth from the large roots can be large channels, ideal for penetration of infection from the oral cavity into the sinus;
- abnormal growth of the back teeth – molars, premolars and wisdom teeth: if they interfere with the maxillary bone or the gums, possible periodontal inflammation and, as a consequence, sinusitis;
- trauma that resulted in the entry of the tooth into the upper jaw is also able to break the barrier between the upper jaw and sinus.
Much rarer, but it happens that in the treatment of teeth a piece of enamel or fillings into the nasopharynx, and from it in the maxillary sinus is a foreign body may cause of odontogenic sinusitis with serous or purulent form.
The symptoms of odontogenic sinusitis
The primary symptom of this disease is pain just above the teeth, radiating discomfort in the head, the frontal lobe and the area under the eyes. Simultaneously or later displayed with a transparent liquid discharge from the nasal passages, is likely to degrade the sense of smell. Gradually, the swelling of the mucosa covering the maxillary sinus increases, resulting in difficult nasal breathing, worsening the outflow of mucus. If not promptly react of odontogenic sinusitis may develop chronic purulent.
When purulent sinusitis observed identical symptoms, but the symptoms listed earlier increase of General weakness, fever up to 40oC and chills. Inflammation of the sinuses and filling them more dense secret – pus leads to increase of the cheeks (if sinusitis is unilateral, increases only one cheek). Touching the nasolabial part of the face causes pain. Because of the complications of breathing appear sleep issues and also develops a fear of light. Possible long-lasting headache.
Also, there is the discomfort (and sometimes pain) when chewing solid food, inflamed lymph nodes.
If the sinusitis becomes chronic, the examination of the oral cavity in the top row can be used to detect teeth affected by caries, periodontitis, and inflammation of the gums around them. Very rarely chronic sinusitis may be asymptomatic – only with the release of serous-purulent content when sanitary procedures.
In remission the symptoms can be expressed insufficiently bright. For example, during the day there are periodic discomfort in the area of the maxillary sinuses. In the morning, after a night of rest, abundantly secretes mucus mixed with pus. Possible cough with mucus (serous or serous-purulent content).
There are several methods for diagnosis of this disease and only a comprehensive examination can give accurate result.
First and foremost is the x – ray diagnosis, the purpose of which is to identify problem areas in the oral cavity: takes a panoramic picture of the whole jaw or pinpoint the specific problem tooth. You can also assign cone-beam tomography to study the state of the upper gums and the upper jaw (the presence of inflammation, cysts, polyps).
Computed tomography allows you to explore the state of maxillary sinuses and to determine if there is in them a secret, pus or polyps.
Endoscopy – the next method that is applied in a comprehensive examination. Medical device endoscope with a diameter of 3-4 mm is administered in a pre-expanded anastomosis. If the cause of sinusitis could be the recent removal of the tooth, a fistula is for research use root canal. With the help of an endoscope is possible to obtain snapshots of the body from the inside, and when they increase it is possible to determine an accurate diagnosis.
If you suspect chronic sinusitis, you should pass a General analysis of blood indices erythrocyte sedimentation rate and white blood cell count will significantly exceed the norm.
Treatment of odontogenic sinusitis
The treatment of this disease will be effective only if it begins with eliminating the cause of infection of the maxillary sinus, and then begin their cleansing from purulent contents. In the case when the cause of the disease is the infected tooth, it is removed. If the reason lies in the condition of the tissue, they reveal and remove foci of infection or other conduct effective therapy.
Often for immediate outflow of serous fluid from the tissues of the maxillary sinus is necessary to perform an incision of the gums and using a syringe to extract it. This measure allows us to take almost full accumulated sereznosti and the pus directly from the body, bypassing the nasal passages. But you also need to take additional measures to prevent the formation of new pus.
In odontogenic maxillary sinusitis recipes of traditional medicine is very limited. In addition, they are aimed at suppressing symptoms and not addressing the root causes of the disease. But to alleviate the patient’s condition with traditional methods is still possible.
For treatment of odontogenic sinusitis is used:
- rinsing the mouth with infusions or decoctions of herbs (chamomile, calendula, St. John’s wort, Linden) – they have anti-inflammatory and disinfectant properties;
- lavage nasal passages with saline (1 tsp to 1 Cup water) or decoctions of sage, Hypericum, eucalyptus – reduce swelling, improve breathing.
It is with this disease as odontogenic (dental) maxillary sinusitis recipes of traditional medicine can be secondary, but primary emphasis should be placed on all the conservative treatment – in this situation it will be more effective.
The maxillary sinus is washed with antiseptics (” – “, “Furatsilinom”, “Dioxidine”) and solutions of the antibiotic (“Sumamed”, “Ceftriaxone”), to clean them from the remnants of harmful microorganisms. In the nasal passages buried vasoconstrictors (“Nazivin”, “Otrivin”,”.”) – they relieve inflammation, reduce swelling and make breathing easier.
Also almost always in addition to the local antibiotic therapy administered and shared to completely suppress the infectious bacteria in the body. After recovery it is necessary to drink a course of lactobacilli for normalization of microflora.
For lifting immunity, the doctor may prescribe vitamin complexes, and to suppress the pain – the pain medication.
Surgical intervention is need not often, but sometimes without it, recovery will not.
This is because of two reasons:
- violation of the integrity of the partition – in this case, it is restored by surgery, after which diseases of the oral cavity will not spread to the maxillary sinus;
- too strong lose the teeth, the presence of cysts or polyps in the upper jaw – in this case, the lesions are removed completely and the therapy aimed at healing.
Surgery is prescribed only in the case if without it, recovery is impossible.
Forecasts and implications
Treatment of this type of sinusitis is urgent, because in the overflow in the chronic form, or when additional infection of the body are possible such consequences as:
- inflammation of eye tissues;
- swelling of the face;
- infection of brain cells;
- infection of the lymphatic fluid;
- poor circulation in the brain.
In addition, prolonged chronic sinusitis can cause the development of maxillary sinuses mucous membrane cancer.
As can be seen, the possible complications really serious, because if you suspect this form of sinusitis as soon as possible to be diagnosed and to confirm or refute the presence of the disease.
The basic reason for the development of odontogenic sinusitis experts unanimously say that the unsatisfactory oral hygiene. Regularly – every six months checkups at the dentist and solve “teething” problems immediately after their discovery. In this case, the probability of the disease sinusitis of the patient’s tooth is minimal.
It is also necessary to maintain the immune power of the body, especially during viral infectious diseases. After treatment should be for a month regularly to rinse the nasal passages with saline as prevention because the body is still weakened by recent illness, because it is highly vulnerable to new infections.