Among the pathologies of the throat there is a group of inflammatory processes that cause the cough reflex with difficult expectoration. A very unpleasant disease with dry cough, after which a small quantity of mucus can quickly become chronic. Therefore, requires qualified medical assistance and appropriate treatment.
Acute tracheitis can be isolated to inflammation, but it is often a complication of colds with the mucous membranes of the oropharynx. Translated from the Latin language tracheitis means inflammation of the mucous membrane of the trachea. In its layers is the accumulation of the inflammatory agent, here shrink immune blood cells, increases blood circulation in the capillaries. Through these processes there is a strong swelling and narrowing of the lumen of the trachea. In addition to suffering from overall health, may slightly increase the body temperature.
Sore throat, soreness in the chest may precede the cough attack. This article presents the main clinical signs and symptoms of acute tracheitis also talked about how treatment at home with the help of pharmacological agents.
The types of the first signs and symptoms of acute tracheitis
Classification of pathology is not only essential for correct diagnosis. Depends on the adequacy of the prescribed treatment and success in the recovery process.
Types of acute tracheitis includes the following pathological changes:
- infectious bacterial or viral etiology (characterized by General malaise, fever);
- allergic type has a normal body temperature, slight cough with lots of sputum;
- a mixed type.
The patient first signs of acute tracheitis can appear in the background of the current colds, and General welfare. It can be a strong hacking cough with sputum difficult.
Later symptoms of acute bronchitis include:
- pain in the throat and behind the breastbone;
- the increase in body temperature to subfebrile figures (not typical to allergic type);
- nasal congestion and runny nose;
- shortness of breath with surfaces short breath;
- strong barking cough, repeated hacking attacks.
In the diagnosis of lung can be detected by hard breathing. When joining wheezes in the projection of the roots of the lungs allows the diagnosis of acute tracheobronchitis. General analysis of blood in this pathology is not increased, white blood cell count and erythrocyte sedimentation rate may remain within normal limits. Chest x-ray also shows signs of General well-being. Special methods of examination such as bronchoscopy, may be required in the diagnosis of chronic cases. Bacteriological analysis of the sputum may be necessary for determination of sensitivity to antibiotics. However, most prescribers of broad spectrum.
In allergic acute tracheitis attention is drawn to symptoms such as lacrimation, strong nasal congestion, dry cough. Can join allergic conjunctivitis and keratitis.
In the differential diagnosis should exclude whooping cough, tuberculosis, acute pneumonia, and malignant neoplasms.
Treatment of acute bronchitis at home (General principles)
In the vast majority of cases are not complicated forms of pathology can be successfully treated on an outpatient basis.
Treatment of acute tracheitis in the home can be carried out only under the control of the therapist. Careful initial diagnosis and the choice of the scheme of adequate therapy.
The main General principles of treatment include the impact on the cause of the disease, hydration of mucous membranes, their regeneration and liberation from the mucous secretion.
The main objectives in the appointment of adequate treatment of acute tracheitis in the home are divided into:
- the etiological treatment (administration of antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal or anti-allergic drug);
- symptomatic effects (decrease of body temperature reception of mucolytic drugs);
- providing conditions for successful recovery of the tracheal mucosa (moist ambient air in the room, dry cleaning, bed rest, smaller meals pureed meals, drinking plenty of fluids).
Of antibacterial drugs are prescribed “Amoxicillin” 500 mg 3 times a day, “Cephalexin”, “Ciprofloxacin” 500 mg 2 times a day, “Azithromycin” 1 tablet 1 time per day. Can also be received combination antimicrobial therapy with the use of “Co-trimoxazole”, or “Biseptol-480. The drug of choice in viral disease is “Kagocel”, “Arbidol” and “Amiksin” – these funds increase overall immunity and expedite the healing process. Among the antihistamines against allergic forms of acute tracheitis the clear leader is “claritin” and “Effective”. They do not cause drowsiness and reduced mental performance.
With the aim of improve sputum discharge and release ciliated epithelium from pathogenic agent appointed mucolytic drugs (“Bromhexine”, “Acetylcysteine”, “Mucosolvan”, “ACC”). When severe attacks of cough without sputum discharge, we can recommend “Codelac” (dispensed by prescription), or “Pour”. They have an effect on the cough centre and inhibit the cough reflex.
Local therapy may consist in a regular gargling, spraying the laryngeal mucosa with Lugol’s solution, a “Throat” or drug “IRS-19”. The patient requires a rich alkaline water thinning the mucus and improve its expectoration.
To prevent the development of acute tracheitis recommended Smoking cessation, staging vaccination against flu, enhance immunity.
Etiology and pathogenesis (causes and mechanisms of development)
The disease has been well studied and is amenable to therapy in the modern medicine. The etiology and pathogenesis of acute tracheitis lies in the complex mechanism of the immune response to external stimulation.
Common causes can include:
- dryness and pollution of the ambient air;
- chemical and thermal burns of the upper respiratory tract;
- Smoking and intake of alcoholic beverages;
- spasmodic narrowing of the lumen of the trachea;
- viral and bacterial infections of the nose and throat.
Depending on the kind of mechanisms of disease involved, can be allergic form of acute tracheitis. In this case the provocative factor may be house dust, bed mites, pollen, flowering plants, household chemicals, excrements of domestic animals, citrus fruit and much more. To determine allergic and infectious nature of acute tracheitis can only be experienced physician, based on the primary survey and the collected history.
In that case, if the disease is accompanied by cough, high body temperature, headache, it is likely that infectious processes. In that case, if the body temperature is normal, General health is not suffering, but the pain and cough arise after the influence of certain factors, it can be assumed the allergic etiology of the pathological process.
Even if acute tracheitis begins as a stand-alone independent process, very quickly it retracted all the fabrics paired departments. This is the larynx, pharynx, bronchial tree. Bronchitis is the most common complication of the disease in the absence of adequate therapy. At the same time, long flowing rhinitis can be complicated by pharyngitis and tracheitis. In clinical diagnosis, the doctor may use the following terms: laryngotracheitis (inflammation of the larynx and tracheia), tracheobronchitis (attached the inflammatory process in the bronchi), fringetree (hurt my throat), rinofaringita (there is runny nose and sore throat).
Common causative agents of infection can be of the following form of the microorganisms:
- staphylococcal and streptococcal flora;
- fungal microflora;
- coronavirus and respiratory virus, influenza virus and Epstein Barr;
- pneumococci and Haemophilus wand;
- the Pfeiffer Bacillus and the causative agent of whooping cough.
For the development of pathology related factors is low immunity, uncontrolled use of antibiotics, Smoking, the habit to eat much spice food and hot food. In the presence of a predisposition to allergic reactions should be eliminate the effect of allergens. If it is impossible to do, it is important to choose the right supportive treatment with antihistamines prolonged action. Uncommon allergic-infectious form of acute bronchitis, which develops on the background of inadequate treatment of allergic or inflammatory reactions.
If to speak about mechanisms of development of pathology, it is necessary to digress in order to consider the physiological mechanism of respiration. Under normal condition the inhaled air passes freely through the nose where it is warmed, moistened and cleaned of mechanical particles of dust. Immediately delayed major part of bacteria and respiratory viruses. In case of any difficulty in nasal breathing, the air immediately enters the larynx, where it can be irritating.
Inhalation of dry and dusty air high likelihood of developing dryness and mechanical irritation of the mucous membranes. When breathing through the mouth in the cold air sharply reduced local protective immunity, increases the risk of spasm of the blood vessels and the occurrence of inflammatory reactions. A risk is an infection of viral, bacterial and fungal pathogens.
The primary reaction is the partial infiltration of the mucous membrane, swelling of the ciliated epithelium. Then there is the inflammation, increases circulation, begins active accumulation of mucous secretion. While coughing he brings from the trachea mechanical dust particles, pathogens and waste products. If the disease is not promptly treated, then develops hypertrophy (overgrowth) of the mucous layer, in the future, there its atrophy (it loses its ability to perform its physiological function). The main symptom of atrophic tracheitis in the chronic form it is a painful non-productive cough. During the inspection the mucous membrane becomes pale and thinned with multiple hemorrhages.
The acute phase of tracheitis proceeds rapidly with a strong cough and General malaise for 14 days. If not, there comes a period of convalescence, about diagnosed chronic diseases.