Causes of problems with urination in men and women are most often associated with the introduction of an infectious agent in different parts of the urinary tract (kidneys, bladder, urethra, etc.) that triggers the inflammatory process in them.
If the urinary tract is caused by any pathological process, it somehow reflects on the act of urination that requires immediate recourse to a doctor (GP or urologist).
We should not forget the more serious diseases, such as benign or malignant neoplasms of any localization, which for a long time, asymptomatic or their symptoms are overlooked from the patient.
Problems urinating in men can occur at any age. This files most often on the intake turn young working-age patients in whom the symptom may be completely different, due to different reasons of its occurrence.
Anatomy of male urethra
Urethra in men is quite convoluted, as there are physiological contractions, long and narrow (its length is 19-24 cm). It plays a significant role in the onset and further progression of the pathological processes in it.
The male urethra around yourself is education, which is called the prostate gland. This organ performs many essential functions, and the violation of urination in men is quite often associated with diseases of the prostate (it covers the prostatic urethra thick muscular ring).
Urethra men has the anatomical features that distinguish it from the female urethra
The process of formation and urine output as follows:
- in the glomerular apparatus of the kidney urine is formed (through the processes of filtration and reabsorption);
- it comes in the Cup-pelvis-plating apparatus of the kidneys, and then the ureters into the lumen of the bladder;
- when the bladder is filled to the required level, it is a tension that is captured by receptors which are located in its walls;
- in the structure of the brain received impulses, there is formed the desire for emptying the bladder.
The concept of “trouble urinating” can include a variety of symptoms, each of which may indicate the beginning of a disease. The majority of diseases of the urinary system have similar symptoms that requires the doctor’s careful diagnosis and long between them.
The clinical picture of the pathological process can exhibit the following symptoms:
- the appearance of dysuria (expressed painful sensations associated with emptying of the bladder, which include feeling cramps, burning, etc.);
- the desire to urinate becomes constant and painful that makes the patient practically always be next to the toilet (number of trips to the bathroom may be 30 times or more per day);
- the urge is so strong that patients do not always have time to run to the bathroom (they are “imperative” in nature, despite the fact that the bladder remains almost empty);
- after going to the toilet the feeling of incomplete emptying of the bladder;
- often men have to exert some effort to begin the process of urination, although the desire to urinate is quite strong;
- night urination in men can dominate the daily urine output that gives them a lot of inconvenience, deprives of sleep and proper rest;
- changing the character of the urine stream (for example, you receive two jets), it can be more subtle, changing its speed and direction, appear multiple or single spray drops, etc.;
- the pathological secretions from the lumen of the urethra, accompanied by an unpleasant odor, a feeling of severe itching, burning (or without them).
If the patient began to complain of the “dual jet” of urine, you should think about diseases of the prostate or stricture of the urethra
As a rule, in addition to problems with urination, patients have additional complaints such as:
- unpleasant or painful sensations in the abdomen, in the lumbar region on one or both sides which may radiate into the rectum, groin or thighs;
- possible acute onset of pain without clear localization, forcing the patient tossing about in bed, seeking the most comfortable positions;
- there is a nausea, possible vomiting (often at the peak of pain, it brings relief to the patient);
- increased body temperature and symptoms of intoxication (headache and muscle pain, malaise, etc.);
- poor overall health, constant fatigue and unexplained weakness, weight loss, poor appetite, profuse sweating during sleep, etc.;
- changing the natural color of urine and the smell, it becomes turbid, it appear traces of blood or pus etc.
Pathological processes, which is suspected
List of major diseases, the clinical picture in which there are problems with urination in men, is presented below:
- Inflammation of the prostate gland (acute or chronic prostatitis). The disease is widespread among men of all ages, the main peak of morbidity is observed in 40-50 years. Pathologic processes in the prostate cause symptoms such as more frequent episodes of nighttime urination, which often precedes all other manifestations of the disease (so not worth it to ignore).
- Cancer processes in the prostate tissue of benign or malignant origin. In these diseases there is a degeneration of normal cells of the body cancer that poses a real threat to the life of the patient. Unfortunately, for a long period of time, the tumor of the prostate takes place completely asymptomatic, which is a godsend at the time of diagnosis.
- Inflammation in the tissues of one or both kidneys (acute or chronic pyelonephritis) or the bladder (different forms of cystitis). These diseases are more common in women, but do not forget about them at the stage of diagnosis.
- Inflammation of the lining of the urethra (acute or chronic urethritis). Quite often the cause of problems with urination in men is associated with an infectious process in the urethra. The disease always occurs with a vivid clinical picture in this case, as a rule, there is a connection with the agents of sexually transmitted origin (gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, ureaplasmosis and other).
- Narrowing of the urethra (stricture). This condition can occur due to trauma to the urethra, prolonged inflammation, and it is often a congenital defect.
- Urolithiasis. A violation of emptying the bladder or other unpleasant symptoms occur at the time of promotion of the concretion in the urinary tract. This may cause bouts of severe pain and dysuric disorders of different severity.
Urethritis is an important provoking factor
Algorithm for the diagnosis of problems with urination in men
Normal frequency of urination per day in healthy men should not exceed 6-8 episodes that speaks about the normal functioning of the organs of the urinary system. If the patient complains of increased urination (as it is about the volume of urine and the number of trips to the toilet), you need to find the cause of this condition, even if his health remains satisfactory.
The same applies to other unpleasant complaints that require immediate diagnosis.
Patients hold the following laboratory and instrumental examination:
- General analysis of blood and urine (they allow to identify and assess the severity of the inflammatory component, but also other changes in the indicators that distinguish them from normal);
- biochemical analysis of blood (the patient determine the level of total protein and its fractions, creatinine, urea, fibrinogen, CRP and other indicators as needed);
- urine analysis according to Nechyporenko (gives information about the severity of inflammatory changes in the organs of the urinary system);
- trehstakannaya test urinary sediment (study for early diagnosis to determine the localization of the infectious process in the kidneys, prostate gland, bladder or urethra);
- PSA (the marker of cancer process in the tissues of the prostate, the study assigned all patients who have problems with urination);
- bacteriological diagnosis (urine culture on nutrient media with obligatory definition of antibiotic sensitivity of the infectious agent);
- uroflowmetry (a procedure that gives the doctor information about the basic parameters of the process of urination, for example, the speed of the jet, duration of the act of emptying, etc.).
In the complex diagnosis resort to uroflowmetry
The list continues:
- plain radiography of the urinary tract and intravenous urography (routine methods of investigation, as a rule, do not always give the doctor full information on the disease);
- Ultrasound of the kidneys, bladder, and transrectal examination of the prostate (methods to estimate the size of the pathological process, its length, etc.);
- cystoscopy and urethroscopy (endoscopic examination gives the opportunity to visualize the affected mucous membranes, to detect the source of the disease, and to collect biopsy material for histological diagnosis);
- CT and MRI of the organs of the urinary system (appointed in complex clinical cases, especially if a long time unable to establish the root cause of the disease).
Treatment of patients
In order to improve the health of the patient and to deliver him from problems with urination, it is necessary to approach the treatment of etiologically, that is, to identify the root cause of the disease and, first and foremost, work on it.
In the therapy of infectious processes such as cystitis, urethritis, prostatitis and pyelonephritis, the main role belongs antimicrobial. They are assigned based on the identified pathogen, most often the preference is given to penicillins, macrolides, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones and others. The average course of treatment is 7-10 days, however if necessary it can continue.
Antibiotics are widely used in the treatment of inflammatory processes of infectious etiology
For prostatitis widely used drugs, alpha-blockers, because they decrease the muscle tension of the prostate, which helps to eliminate unpleasant and dysuric symptoms.
To relieve pain and spastic syndrome prescribed analgesics and antispasmodics in the therapy dosage (it is important not to exceed the allowable dosages and timing of their admission).
To reduce the severity of inflammatory component will help the drugs with antihistamine activity (they eliminate tissue swelling, and therefore reduce pain). Immune-stimulating drugs can activate its own protective properties of the body, which speeds up the infectious agent and also prevents possible recurrence of the disease and its transition into the chronic form.
When it comes to the manifestation of urolithiasis, namely the presence of a large calculus, it is necessary to treat the patient in conjunction with surgeons. They recommended the shock of volnovalas or other methods of surgical intervention. The same applies to patients with neoplastic processes in the prostate gland, for which the main treatment is surgery (due to her completely excised the affected tissue).
If the patient has a narrowing (stricture) of the urethra, therapy of begerovaya or a more invasive intervention. In the complex treatment of inflammatory processes in the urinary tract use folk remedies (herbal medicine). The carefully chosen herbs and their duties, can achieve remarkable therapeutic effect and to hasten the healing process of the patient.
Its application has found a decoction of the leaves and berries of cranberries, rose hips, birch buds and other components
It is important to understand that any problems with urination require timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment, regardless of whether the patient has other unpleasant complaints or observed their absence. Do not be ashamed of their complaints, to self-medicate, and to resort to the advice of friends, because any wrong action can lead to serious consequences.