Liver cancer, according to some experts, over the last decades has taken a leading position among the newly identified cancer. That’s why it’s important to know what is the cause of what the disease is and what will happen to the sick.
The reasons for the development of the disease
For cancer of the liver interferes with the normal cell division, of which it is composed. Sharing quickly and uncontrollably, they die, failing to reach maturity. Young cells cannot fully perform its functions, the liver is disturbed. If the treatment does not start on time, the patient will die.
What occurs primary cancer?
The reasons are different:
- Chronic inflammation of the liver that occurs for various reasons.
- Alcoholism, first causing cirrhosis and then liver cancer.
- Mutation of genes under the influence of viruses that cause hepatitis.
- Obesity, causing the same effects as alcoholism.
- Human infection flatworms-trematodes which live mainly in fish. Cancer diseases caused by trematodes, are common in Kazakhstan, Thailand, the coastal towns of Russia. The parasites enter the bile ducts in the man from poorly processed fish.
- Congenital anomalies of the liver can develop into cancer.
- Infection of waste products of mold fungi – aflatoxins. This form is most common in China and Africa. The use of rice, nuts, grains, moldy, often leads to death.
- Some experts believe that one of the forms of the disease (sarcoma) may be caused by androgenic hormones.
- It is believed that there is a genetic predisposition to some types of cancer lesions.
Varieties of ailment
Long-term study and treatment of liver cancer by doctors shows that cancer can be (from a clinical point of view) primary or secondary. Primary it is a series of single whitish seals, which quickly germinate in other organs. Secondary cancers are metastases, which grow in the liver from other organs.
According to what fabric is striking in cancer of the liver, release of epithelial and non-epithelial types.
The first group includes:
- Hepatocellular (liver cell) cancer, which is also known as carcinoma. There are several varieties of this form. It is the most widespread among the adult population.
- Cholangiocellular (bile duct cancer). In Europe, this diagnosis is 1 person out of 100,000 cancer patients. That is why cholangiocarcinoma is the most rare form of the disease.
- Hepatocholangiocarcinoma (mixed) cancer affecting several areas of the body.
- Undifferentiated forms of the disease, giving metastases.
To non-epithelial forms include hemangioendothelioma. There are also mixed forms.
For any of oncological diseases distinguish growth stages of tumors (cancer liver):
- The first stage is characterized by the appearance of small, up to 2 cm, tumors. Lymph nodes were not affected.
- In the second stage, the tumor more than 2 cm. Some forms of cancer (e.g., undifferentiated cholangiocarcinoma or some kinds) can give metastases to the nearest lymph node.
- The tumor becomes larger, lose mobility, and in regional lymph nodes metastases appear.
- Tumor invades into adjacent organs, metastases affect lymph nodes. If you are diagnosed with liver cancer stage 4 many doctors believe patients inoperable.
Each form of cancer has its own characteristics of flow.
Learn more about the different forms of liver cancer
- Hepatocellular (liver cell) cancer. History of the disease depends on many factors: the General condition of the patient, his age, etc. are Common to all and the most common symptoms of carcinoma of the liver or other cancer: rapid weight loss, constant General weakness, pain in the right upper abdomen, fever. At later stages, if untreated, develop jaundice. The clinical picture shows that approximately 45% of patients distant metastases were found in lungs, half of the cases in the abdominal region develops painful swelling, 60% signs of liver failure. How many people live suffering from hepatocarcinomas? Studies show that with early detection and tumor removal, high-quality treatment life patient is at least 10 years. Upon detection of tumors at later stages life expectancy is reduced. Of course, that the indicator for this individual.
- Cholangiocarcinoma develops from the tissues of the biliary tract. The signs depend on the localization of the tumor. If it is located outside the liver, it is found most often when completely overlaps the bile duct. If cholangiocarcinoma grows in the liver, the patient can experience itching, constant dull pain in hypochondrium the liver, General weakness. The disease is accompanied by stagnation of bile, which can be determined by clay stools, dark urine. How to cure cancer of this kind? The only experts in Russia, a reliable way of eliminating cholangiocarcinoma – surgery. However it has many contraindications, therefore, are considered to be operable, not all patients (only about 10% when cholangiocarcinoma is at an early stage). For the remaining patients in the US today are testing the combined treatment of radiation and chemical methods. Is such a deadly cancer? Forecast, especially for inoperable patients, adverse. Cholangiocarcinoma now actively studied by scientists of all countries. They found that after surgery 50% of patients live more than 5 years. Depending on the localization of cholangiocarcinoma prognosis can vary greatly. As with any cancer, much depends on the General condition of the patient and the time of diagnosis.
Is there a cure for liver cancer?
Just a few years ago the treatment of liver cancer was limited to analgesia. The patient was administered analgesics, support it with vitamins. Hearing the question of whether the treated liver cancer, the prognosis doctors gave not always. Today, this question most often experts confidently say that the early diagnosis of liver cancer allows you to fully heal the majority of patients.
The chances of recovery do not only depend on what stage of liver cancer diagnosed, but also on the primary or it is metastatic. That is why every man is obliged not only to engage in the prevention of cancer disease, but regular blood tests for tumor markers – proteins that appear in blood and urine with the growth of malignant tumors.
Tumor markers allow you to:
- To determine the presence of tumor in the body.
- Find out benign or malignant it is.
- If the analysis for tumor markers is carried out in the treatment process, to establish its effectiveness.
It is important to remember that tumor markers in a certain amount is in the blood of healthy people.It may increase in colds, inflammations, in some other cases. It is therefore important to interpret the test results, a skilled surgeon.
What is the treatment
In Russia, as in most other countries, uses several basic methods of treatment:
- Chemoembolization (chemotherapy single lesions). Allows you to pause the development of, or destroy cancer cells. Drugs and their quantity are selected individually. There are contraindications.
- Radiotherapy (radiation therapy). The use of ionized radiation can be contact, contactless or radionuclide. In the latter case, the drug is injected directly into a patient’s blood.
- Radiosurgery. The principle resembles radiotherapy, but has a high accuracy. Is not surgery in the original sense of the word. Method of exposure is to high-precision delivery of radiation to the affected area, sparing healthy tissues.
- Surgery. Resection is used in cases when complete excision of the affected area.
Often used to treat the integrated use of all methods.
How to treat liver cancer? Need not to self-medicate, but fully and accurately implement all the recommendations of specialists, to recommended lifestyle and not to lose hope: today every day there are new drugs and techniques that can completely cure the patient and avoid relapse.