29.11.2020

Tuberculous spondylitis of the spine

The disease is important to diagnose in the early stages. In this case, it is possible to carry out an effective treatment. Without proper treatment, the disease can lead to death.

Tuberculous spondylitis is a chronic disease that affects the spine. It has an infectious nature, and occurs as a complication of pulmonary tuberculosis, moved to preschool age.

Symptoms

Children and adolescents are at risk of infection. And in adults tuberculous spondylitis is very rare. The first symptoms from the lungs.

  • the patient was worried about severe cough with abundant secretion of;
  • bleeding with cough, shortness of breath;
  • can be a pain in the chest area;
  • people tired, tired quickly, nausea and headache;
  • body temperature is continuously increased (37-37,5).

These symptoms are of a protracted nature. They can last from several months to a year or two. If the patient does not receive proper treatment, the infection spreads to the spine. In this case, the person feels:

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  • back pain;
  • a noticeable change in the usual motions;
  • appear curvature of the spine.

The symptoms of the disease vary depending on which part of the spine affected by the infection.

  • Cervical. The patient dizzy, gait is unsteady. Also occurs clouding of consciousness.
  • Thoracic. With a deep breath the person feels pain or tingling. Also the pain spreads to the upper limbs.
  • The lumbosacral. The pain extends to the lower limbs. There are irregularities in the pelvic organs (stool and urine).

In the most severe cases the symptoms are combined in the so-called triad of Pott’s abscess, appearance of a hump and paralysis of the upper and lower extremities.

Diagnosis

Spondylitis is visible on the radiograph. In pictures visible Podhradie erosion and destruction in the closing plate of the vertebral body. If the affected thoracic, these pathological changes will be located in front of the vertebral body. This leads to further compression and formation of a hump.

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Also the picture shows the phenomenon of osteopenia, which is that the bone becomes less dense, and in the picture it looks translucent.

Characteristic symptom of the disease are perivitelline abscesses. They can be located at a considerable distance from the lesion and can get into podplavlenie space in the lumbar muscle, in the chest, groin and in the popliteal fossa. They recognize on radiographs.

The causes of the disease

Tuberculous spondylitis cause of mycobacteria of tuberculosis, the tubercle Bacillus. This intracellular parasite. Their prevalence is due to those that they are resistant to alkalis, acids, to desiccation and to antibiotic. Also, the office can become resistant even to the drugs.

From the lungs the disease agent enters the spine through the blood. Infection thins the vertebrae, enters the intervertebral disc and causes purulent formation called abscess. Destroying one vertebra, the MBT applies to the other.

Infection usually occurs through contact with an infected person. The probability of infection is increased the longer and closer the contact.

Tuberculosis can be transmitted in the following ways:

  • in utero from mother to child;
  • through the digestive tract, that is, through food, MTI;
  • contact method;
  • airborne droplets.
Risk group

Some groups of people more susceptible to infection than others. Some of the factors you can influence, protect their health.

More common:

  • those who live in areas of mass infection;
  • people with bad sanitary conditions of life;
  • people with diseases of the endocrine system;
  • those who accepts hormonal preparations;
  • cancer patients;
  • those who had organ transplants.
Possible complications

Due to the fact that the inflamed vertebrae become less active, there is a scoliosis or kyphosis, which can lead to the formation of hump. Another complication may become tuberculous meningitis. It occurs if the pus penetrates into the subarachnoid area. This complication can cause coma and lead to death. Can appear diseases such as pericarditis, mediastinitis, paraplegia, and others.

Scoliosis

Phase

Tuberculosis of the spine occurs in three phases: prakticheskuyu, arthritic and postulations.

  1. Prakticheskaya phase is characterized by the appearance of symptoms, which are more difficult to recognize the characteristic signs of tuberculosis. Observed General symptoms of tuberculosis intoxication. These include weakness, mild, poorly localized pain. Children become less mobile and keep their legs. At night they scream. Noticeable slightly elevated temperature. At this stage, a positive TB Mantoux test, pirquet. The diagnosis can be refined using x-rays. The picture shows a noticeable inflammation. They are usually localized in the parietal and subchondral areas of the epiphyses. Gradually, all the symptoms become more pronounced, there is lameness and muscle atrophy.
  2. Arthritic phase. The pain become stronger, gradually increase, and then decay, passing two stages, the beginning and the middle. Spondylitis progresses and develops.
  3. Postarticles phase is reflected in the attenuation of tuberculosis with preservation of the pathological changes. In this period there is scarring, muscle atrophy and defigure joint. Due to the fact that such changes are irreversible, it is very important to start treatment spondylitis in prakticheskoi phase, since the detection of pathology using x-rays.

In each of these phases of inflammation can be of different severity. Depending on this, there are active, torpid, the current TB has lost activity or cured.

Treatment

The treatment is done in the hospital under constant supervision of a TB specialist. Therapy consists of intake of anti-TB drugs. Apply immobilization of the patient on the bed with gypsum beds for fixation of the affected area of the spine. In the treatment of osteomyelitis apply massage, physiotherapy and other treatments.

Prepared special diet. The body of the patient is rubbed camphor oil and massage to prevent pressure sores.

In the presence of a suppurative process, surgical intervention to eliminate the abscess and repair the spine. Then appointed antibacterial therapy. Can also be surgery to correct physiological bone changes in the joints and spine caused by the disease.

In this disease the patient many months to comply with bed rest and minimal physical activity. When conducting rehabilitation range movement activity expands gradually. The result of the treatment is secured Spa treatment.

Drug therapies

Of medicinal drugs used non-steroidal drugs such as Diclofenac, Nimesulide and Ibuprofen. But if these means prove ineffective, use glucocorticosteroid and Metatext. These means suppress the inflammation and facilitate the flow of symptoms. However, they have side effects, so appointed and accepted under the constant supervision of a physician. Also use broad-spectrum antibiotics.

Herbal medicine

Decoctions and juices of fresh vegetables have a beneficial effect on the healing process. But they can be only an ancillary remedy and should be taken under the guidance of a doctor. Using herbal medicine, you can continue treatment or rehabilitation at home.

Useful are the following plants:

  • wild rose;
  • licorice;
  • St. John’s wort;
  • mullein;
  • mother and stepmother;
  • conifers.

And also the following products:

  • carrots;
  • walnut;
  • beets;
  • celery.

Recipes:

Coniferous supplements useful for taking warm baths. The water temperature should be about 37°C. Method of use of such additives is usually indicated on the packaging by the manufacturer. Bathe no more than 15 minutes.

Fresh juice of carrot, beet and celery in equal proportions you need to drink in the amount of half a Cup for half an hour before meals. The course of treatment prescribed by a doctor.

Walnuts crushed and mixed with liquid honey in the ratio of 3 tbsp walnut 1 tbsp. of honey. This mixture should eat a teaspoon in the morning and in the evening before bed.

A decoction of the herb St. John’s wort should drink a tablespoon three times a day before meals. For the broth to pour ten grams of the herb Cup boiling water. Brewed in a thermos for a rose hips can just add it to teas.

Treatment at home

In addition to herbal medicine, there are other effective means that will help the body to recover from disease. The room should be clean and well ventilated. The mode of the day should be organized so that the patient could rest more often and to eat five times a day. He needs to give up bad habits, especially Smoking. Special attention is paid to diet. The power needs in half to consist of carbohydrate food. 15% of the diet is fat, and the rest of the share proteins. Food should be varied, rich in vitamins and easy to assimilate foods.

Forecasts

With timely treatment and strict observance of the instructions, the doctor projected a full recovery. However, in patients with neurological symptoms, the disease is harder and longer. The same applies to patients who are suppurative lesions on the skin in the form of ulcers. Deformity of the spine and thorax, which were not eliminated surgically, corrected with physical therapy.

Timely diagnosis and treatment will play a key role in recovery by restoring the functionality of all affected organs.

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