01.10.2020

Acute gastroenteritis (gastritis)

Acute gastrointestinal inflammation may suddenly occur in children and adults.

There are the following causes of gastroenteritis:

1. Viral etiology (children often affects rotavirus, adults, norovirus).

2. The bacterial origin of the disease (Salmonella, Shigella, various E. coli). A child is easily susceptible to bacteria, especially if parents follow his bad personal hygiene and allow you to pull the dirty hands in the mouth. Also, the cause of bacterial infection can be consumption of unwashed produce.

3. Incorrect, unbalanced diet, lack of standardized diet and large amounts of beneficial products on the menu.

4. Intestinal parasites – roundworm, worms (often the child).

5. Food intoxication.

6. Overeating a large number of rough to the absorption and digestion of food (fiber, too spicy or salty foods, alcoholic beverages piping hot or too cold food).

7. Long-term, uncontrolled intake of drugs, negatively acting on the walls of the stomach and intestines and causing various inflammations, including acute gastroenteritis.

Acute gastroenteritis (gastritis) is an inflammatory disease of the mucous membrane of the stomach and intestines. The disease develops very quickly, especially sharply manifested signs in children. The incubation period lasts from 3 to 7 days, symptoms make themselves known just a few hours. Children get sick more often in the acute form, similar to adults, are diagnosed much less frequently.

Signs of the disease

The symptoms of gastroenteritis are triggered by bacteria or viruses are:

  • Permanent trudnootdelemy nausea and vomiting.
  • One of the main symptoms is pain about the navel. The child may complain that it hurts the entire abdomen at once, so the gastroenteritis in children is more difficult to assess.
  • Bloating, flatulence.
  • Very frequent diarrhea, up to 20 times a day, feces has an unpleasant odor.
  • Headache, dizziness.
  • Lethargy.
  • The increase in temperature.
  • Dry mucous membranes from dehydration.
  • Weak rapid pulse, reduced blood pressure.
  • Pale skin.

If you experience these symptoms should call a physician immediately and try to start to treat this disease. Careless attitude can have serious complications and consequences. Their therapy is accompanied by great difficulties for the sick and their relatives.

Diagnosis

Before starting treatment, the physician must ensure absolute accuracy of diagnosis. This detail doctor asks the patient and his relatives about possible complaints, the signs and symptoms of the disease.

In the acute form of gastroenteritis, the diagnostic will be to use the following methods of examination:

1. General analysis of blood. The presence of inflammation will show increased ESR and leukocytosis.

2. Reactions to the presence of various microbial pathogens and antibodies to them. Bacteriological analysis are carried out three times.

3. Studies vomit, feces, the contents of 12 duodenal ulcer.

4. Fibrogastroduodenoscopy – based survey using a probe with a camera on the end. The tube apparatus is introduced into the stomach, on the screen the image is projected, by which the doctor determines the health of the gastrointestinal tract and the ability to cure the patient.

5. Coprogram – detects in the stool the presence of blood, tissue, undigested muscle fibers, pus.

6. Examination of feces for presence of eggs of various intestinal parasites.

7. An analysis of the presence of bacteria that causes inflammation of the mucous membranes of the digestive tract by Helicobacter Pylori.

8. Biopsy of the modified sections of the stomach and intestines.

9. The measurement of gastric acidity.

10. If in the acute form of gastroenteritis fibrogastroduodenoscope the research cannot prescribe an ultrasound of the abdominal organs.

Features of therapy

To cure gastroenteritis with onset should be placed in infectious hospital.

Therapy will be the application of comprehensive treatment, involving several manipulations:

  1. 1. As soon as the patient goes to the hospital, he first washed stomach.
  2. 2. In order to cure catarrh of the stomach, necessary medicines.
  3. 3. Rehydration therapy – rehabilitation of patient after dehydration, including restoration of liquid balance in the body.
  4. 4. Restoring flora after intestinal dysbacteriosis.
  5. 5. Mandatory light diet not only in the acute stage, but also throughout the healing process.

Drug treatment consists of receiving the following drugs under the supervision of a physician:

1. Farmcrest, normalizes water-salt balance (Regidron). They will help recover circulatory and digestive systems after dewatering, compensate for the loss of fluid and essential electrolytes.

2. Antispasmodics (no-Spa, Buscopan). Used to stop the abnormal contraction of smooth muscles bodies and treat the main cause of pain – spasm.

3. Antibacterial agents or antibiotics. Are selected individually, depending on which types of microorganisms provoked the disease.

4. Antiparasitic drugs (Dekaris, Vermin). Apply when gastroenteritis is the result of the activity of intestinal parasites.

5. Enterosorbents (Activated charcoal, use adsorbents). Are assigned in cases where inflammation is caused by various types of poisoning or allergic reaction. Small components absorb harmful corrosive substances and eliminate them from the body, cleansing the stomach and intestines and stopping thereby the negative impact on them.

6. Enzymes (Mezim, Festal). Normalize digestion and compensate for the enzyme deficiency.

7. Drugs to restore the microflora (Bifiform, Linex). Compensate for the lost balance of beneficial microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract.

8. Symptomatic treatment (antiemetics, antipyretics, strengthening). Selected depending on the most manifested signs of disease. Each group of drugs relieves the painful symptoms of the disease, facilitating the patient’s condition.

Diet

In order for the treatment of gastroenteritis has completed successfully, you need to follow a special diet, aimed at the speedy regeneration of damaged areas of the stomach and intestines, recovery of the body after the acute stage of the disease and replenishing it with necessary nutrients.

On the first day to eat is strictly forbidden, in body hard, are applied through the drip various salt solutions. The patient can be given a little bit of warm boiled water with sugar or weak decoction of rose hips. From the second day gradually introduced into the diet of broth from lean meat, pureed, mashed potatoes, porridge, cooked a mixture of milk and water, milk products, bread, vegetables and fruits without a peel. Of the drinks is better to prefer herbal teas, diluted juices, mineral water.

Eat junk, fried, too salty or spicy food is strictly prohibited. You can not drink sweet drinks and fast food, contraindicated alcohol.

Prevention

In order to prevent gastroenteritis, you need to follow the simple rules:

  1. 1. Regularly pass medical examination.
  2. 2. To follow diet and menus, the appearance of discomfort and pain to refrain from junk food.
  3. 3. To abandon bad habits.
  4. 4. It is necessary to pay great attention to personal hygiene.
  5. 5. Not to forget the thermal treatment of products.
  6. 6. To prevent the occurrence of intestinal parasites in domestic animals.

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