The symptoms of helminth infection at an early stage may not be seen. Then the child has a disturbed appetite, sleep, deteriorating General condition, he becomes restless, complains of itching in the anus.
Where are the worms in children?
Even if the family is strictly observed hygiene is not a panacea for worms. 80 % of preschool children attending educational establishments, are carriers of parasites. In children infection most often occurs through eggs that are in soil, water, other people, food, and also through insect bites. The danger of the disease increases with the presence of Pets.
Infestation (helminthiasis) – a fairly common phenomenon in children. Especially vulnerable are the children aged, preschoolers and Junior pupils, as in this period there is an active tactile cognition of the world, playing in the sandbox, contacts with other children, Pets. When this occurs, the neglect of elementary rules of personal hygiene because of their age.
Tests for identification of worms
Under these signs you need to be tested for worms. Modern medicine allows us to determine the presence of invasion in several ways – according to the results of fecal, blood, intestine through ultrasound, radiography and computer diagnostics.
1. Fecal tests.
Using coprogram can detect parasites such as flat, round and tapeworms. However, not always revealed the presence of eggs, since the process of reproduction in some species occurs at certain times, not daily. Therefore, an experienced doctor can prescribed to take 3 times every 2 days.
Material for the study was collected in a sterile container with a special spatula. Bowel movement should be natural, without the use of enemas and suppositories. Before the collection of feces is not necessary to wash away the child, but it is advisable to try to avoid the admixture of urine. To be tested it is necessary for 10-12 hours after defecation. Up to this point the container can be stored in the refrigerator. The result is prepared within 6 working days.
Scraping on enterobiasis detects the presence of pinworm eggs. To collect the material you need in the morning to the toilet sterile cotton swab to take a scraping from the folds of the anus, be placed in a special container and send to the lab. Usually in clinics scrapings taken immediately in the morning to hygienic procedures using a glass spatula, cotton swabs or adhesive tape. Analysis mandatory for all children attending pre-school and educational institutions. The result is prepared during the working day. A single capture of enterobiasis scraping reveals only 50% of cases. For a clearer picture you need to pass it 3-5 times with an interval of 2 days.
2. A blood test for worms.
Enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) reveals the presence of antibodies that arise during infection by pathogenic organisms and helminths. Determined diseases such as syphilis, trichomoniasis, mycoplasmosis, viral hepatitis, herpes, Epstein-Barr, cytomegalovirus, helminthiasis.
Is more accurate compared with fecal tests because:
- eggs in feces can be detected only in the intestinal stage of the parasite, and the immunoglobulin IgE is produced at an early stage of the disease;
- a small error in the sampling of biological material;
- the accuracy of the result up to 95 %.
Blood is taken from a vein, the result can be found in 1-7 business days.
A blood test method PCR (polymerase chain reaction) can detect infectious agents based on DNA research, such as chlamydia, ureaplasmosis, gonorrhea, HPV, Mycoplasma infections, Salmonella, cytomegalovirus, helminthiasis, etc., the Blood is drawn from the vein, the result is 10 working days. The disadvantage is that it is impossible to identify the degree of severity of the disease, i.e. the number of parasites in the body.
Also for the detection of helminth infection used blood tests on the methods of Phragmites (reaction of indirect hemagglutination), RIF (immunofluorescence reaction), RAC (reaction of complement binding) and RAL (agglutination of latex). All these studies allow to detect antibodies or antigens produced by the body in response to infection with helminths. They can pass in state hospitals or any commercial laboratory. Special training to the fence material is not required, however, laboratories are encouraged to donate blood from a vein on an empty stomach.
Other methods of definition of helminthiasis
If the doctor has any suspicion that the child appeared worms and blood and feces did not show it, he may order the following diagnostic methods:
1. Endoscopy and indoniesia – examination of the bowel and the sample tissue with an instrument called an endoscope. Used in acute helminthiasis. Requires special training: diet for 2-3 days before the procedure is done in the evening and an enema in the morning for 1.5 hours. The main disadvantages of this method is the ability to detect only certain types of adult parasites and pain.
2. ULTRASONIC examination and radiography. Can only assume the presence of worms or traces of their activity in the intestine and beyond, but the conclusion can only be considered in conjunction with other methods of diagnosis. No special preparation is required.
3. Computer-aided diagnosis. Became popular in the last decade in different private clinics. The method is based on recording the bioelectric characteristics of cells, organs and tissues, allowing to identify pathological processes. Officially, the medicine does not confirm the effectiveness of this method of diagnosis. The result of the study is very subjective and it can be considered only in conjunction with traditional tests for worms in children.
Common types of helminths
- 1. Pinworms – parasites that live in the rectum. Are small white worms cause severe itching in the anus. Eggs are transmitted contact-household by failure to observe personal hygiene.
- 2. Roundworm. This large worms are pale pink in color, who live mainly in the intestine, but there are cases of penetration into other organs. Transmitted contact-household, water and food by.
- 3. Giardia. Live in the small intestine. The infection occurs through spores contact-household, water or food by.
- 4. Trichinella – species of round worm. Lives mainly in the intestine, causing the symptoms of typhoid are fever, diarrhoea, headache, swelling of the face. The main source is pork.
- 5. Whipworm – a thin worm, the adult reaches a length of 35 cm, lives in the colon. Fibers (so called), he clings to the intestinal wall and suck blood.
- 6. The bovine tapeworm. Refers to a type of tapeworm reaches a length of 10 m. a Infection is possible through poorly treated or raw beef that has worm eggs. There are varieties of the pork tapeworm, accordingly, it is possible to get sick because of poorly processed pork, and dwarf tapeworm infection which is the same as a roundworm.
- 7. Echinococcus is one of the most dangerous parasites. Subject to the larvae cats and dogs.
Treatment of worms and prevention
Treatment of helminthiasis is engaged to the pediatrician, who will select the drug based on tests and General health of the child. In addition to anti-parasitic means are assigned to a tonic, immunostimulant and anti-histamine. In acute course of the disease shows the injection of chloride or calcium gluconate, sodium bicarbonate, b vitamins and ascorbic acid. In cases of infection by worms the child self-medication can lead to disastrous consequences.
The main points of the prevention of worms is known to all from childhood:
- wash hands thoroughly with soap and water before eating, after using the toilet, public places, transport, contacts with people and animals, to instill in your child good personal hygiene;
- raw vegetables, fruits, eggs subjected to treatment with a special soap or disinfectants;
- to check in-store availability of veterinary certificate for meat, expose it to full heat treatment, avoid eating raw fish;
- if the home has Pets, you need to check them at the vet for the presence of worms;
- to maintain cleanliness in the house, regularly wet cleaning, process toys;
- to boost immunity, more fresh air, eat right, take vitamins, to harden;
- regular blood tests of blood and feces on eggs a worm. In educational institutions practiced delivery of scraping on enterobiosis before the beginning of each school year.
Universal preventive antiparasitic funds does not exist. All drugs chosen by the doctor based on the results of the research. Self-treatment in case of worm infestation is unacceptable.