The game of ice hockey in its modern form emerged and took shape in Canada in the late nineteenth century. The first hockey rules were formulated in 1877, and in 1886 was printed their improved version.
Since then, the spread of ice hockey, the popularity of this sports team games and love to her from audiences has grown at a frantic pace. First championship, first international meeting, the creation of the hockey leagues and associations, continued refinement of the rules of the game of hockey. And since 1920, hockey included in the winter Olympic games.
In our country, as elsewhere in the world, hockey is the most popular winter sports team play. Its entertainment attracts a lot of attention to major international tournaments hockey. And even those people who had never held a club in hands, know something about the rules of the game of ice hockey.
General rules of the game of hockey
Team game hockey is on ice and is the confrontation between the two teams. Usually on the field is six players on each side including goalies. Players move around the rink on skates. The aim of the game is to score by using Golf clubs as many as possible goals in gate of the contender and to prevent an own goal. The winner is the team who scored the most points by the end of the playing time of the match.
Hockey match divided into three periods of 20 minutes net time. Between periods of declared breaks, usually lasting 15 minutes. Depending on the tournament in the event of a draw account at the end of the regular time is assigned additional time, or overtime. To determine the winner can also get the post-match shots, or shootouts. Specific rules of overtime and shootout are indicated in the regulations of the tournament.
Only match States to 25 players who may appear on the site, several times one after another in a single match. In addition to field players and goalkeepers on the pitch judging team of three or four judges. Usually it’s one main referee and two line. In their keeping is tracking the violation of the rules of the game of hockey, fixing goals, tracking the offside, icing the puck, etc.
Hockey pitch and its markings
Dimensions of a hockey rink, according to the rules fixed by the International Federation of ice hockey, are 60-61 meters in length and 29-30 meters wide. For informal games, the size of the site can vary, but the minimum possible area is designated in the rules of hockey as 40х20 meters.
The hockey area is limited to the rim with a minimum height of 1.2 meters. Around the perimeter of the sides attached safety glass height from 1.6 to 2 meters. The corners of the court and the sides should be rounded. On one side of the rim there are exits for both teams. Through the gate that opens inward, the athletes go on the ice at the beginning of the match and replaced during the game. On the benches on this side of the rim side are all players teams and coaches. On the other side of the site there are also two gates that lead to the penalty box for both teams.
The layout of the rink on the ice using blue and red paint. The field is divided in half by the Central red line, it is located in the middle point of touch. In three to four metres from the front sides (short side of the site) held the red goal line, the center of which is located the gate. The distance between the goal posts in hockey is 1.83 meters, a height of 1.22 meters. The goal area is designated by blue paint with a red border. 17.23 metres from each goal line and held them parallel to the blue lines of the zones of opponents, between which is located the Central area. The left and right of the gate at a distance of 6 metres marked the point of touch zones of the touch, limited circles with a radius of 4.5 meters.
Inventory and equipment for playing ice hockey
For the game of ice hockey requires puck. This sports equipment made of plastic or vulcanized rubber. Diameter of Cup is 3 inches (7.62 cm) thickness 1 inch (2.54 cm), weight between 156 to 170 grams. The game of ice hockey is sticks, which are used for throws, passes and keeping the puck. The stick is a long thin stalk with a flat extension at one end called a hook. The size of the sticks, and the material from which they are made, vary greatly depending on the physical characteristics of the athletes, the working hands, and preferences. Stick the goalie stick is different from a normal player.
Playing hockey, the athletes move around the court at great speed and with even greater speed and moves the puck with strikes. For this reason, great importance is given to the protective equipment of the players. Mandatory helmets and all pads and linings to fit the shape protect the athlete from blows and collisions, falls and hitting the puck. Modern materials allow to make this protection easy and convenient.
The beginning of the hockey game
Any hockey game starts in the Central point of touch, in which the puck is played by two players of opposing teams. The choice half of the field before the first period is usually remains with the owners of the meeting is made either by drawing lots. Teams must change ends after each subsequent primary or secondary period. Players and goalkeepers may be replaced at any time during the game or during her stay. And the goalkeeper can be replaced by a field player.
A goal in hockey
A goal is scored in a hockey game whenever the puck gets into the goal and crosses completely the goal line. The exception is when a player intentionally strikes the puck with his leg, hand or sends it to the gate by any other way than with his stick. Also do not count goals in the gate as a result of direct rebound from the judge, or in the case that the gate be pushed.
Violation of the rules and penalties of hockey
In the modern hockey rules lists a huge number of situations that can occur on the ice shall be considered a breach by one or more players and is punishable by various fines.
Among the most common violations in hockey can be called the bumps and shocks of the opponent, running boards, delay, and hooks, power moves against the player, not in possession of the puck, a dangerous game high sticking, delay of game and unsportsmanlike and undisciplined behavior.
The rules of the game of hockey provide penalties, the decision on disciplinary measure shall be taken by the judge. Offending players may be punished with a small bench or a small fine, large fine, the disciplinary penalty with the right to substitute, delete to end the game with the right replacement in 5 minutes or free throw (penalty shot).
Minor penalty involves the removal of the player from the site for two minutes. If the goalkeeper breaks the rules, instead of deletion is assigned to one of the field players. The game is in the minority may end prematurely only in case if the other team taking advantage, will score a goal. If a player from the penalty box violates the rules during a disciplinary sanction, the judge may remove one field player.
Small bench penalty unlike just a small penalty in hockey is imposed not on the specific player and the whole team for a General violation or breach of, immediate culprit which fails to install. Then will be removed fielder, whom he calls coach.
Large fine includes the deletion of the violating player or goalkeeper on the field before the end of the game, the replacement player can only be made in 5 minutes.
Disciplinary penalty assigned for the violation of disciplinary rules entails the removal of the player for 10 minutes and does not apply to goalkeepers. Repeated disciplinary penalty to the same player means removal from the game without possibility of replacement.
Also to disciplinary sanctions include, match penalties and penalty shots.
Free throws in hockey
Assignment of penalty kicks penalties for teams whose athletes are in violation of the rules to prevent the opponent to score a goal. Also a penalty may be imposed for intentionally falling on the puck or the ball, for trying to get the puck thrown a stick or other object, for intentional shift gate, as well as for violation of numerical composition at the site in the last two minutes of the game or during overtime. The appointment of a free throw does not exclude punishment in the penalty box, if required by the rules.
Free throw performed by the player against whom a rule has been broken. If he is injured, the right to strike is transferred to another player, not under the influence of a fine. For the implementation of the shot the puck is placed on the center point of the faceoff, while the site remains the only player that implements a free throw and the goalkeeper of the opposing team. On command of the judge, the player must pick up the puck and proceed to the opponent’s goal and try to score a goal. The first roll of the washer shall count as a penalty.
Also bullets can be assigned to a tie score after regulation time and overtime. In this case, resorting to a series of penalty shots.