Why is a small amount of urine

Urination is an important physiological process by which human body gets rid of all the useless products of metabolism, toxins, medications in pure and modified form and other hazardous substances. The amount of urine in a healthy person is approximately equal to the amount of liquid they consumed per day, and is not less than 400-500 ml, if there are no violations in the work of organs and systems.

If the body produces little urine, and urination are missing, talking about the state, which in the language of medicine is called oliguria. It should not be confused with shortness of urination, when the bladder is in the normal mode, liquid a lot, but its outflow is obstructed.

Because of their specificity, oliguria can be caused by a variety of reasons or set of reasons, which are divided into premium, renal and postrenal. About why this occurs and what characterizes each of them, read this article!

Premium oliguria

Prerenal oliguria is a condition in which very small amounts of urine due to involvement of large or small vessels and lack of perfusion of the kidneys.

The disease is characterized by the decreased volume of extracellular fluid and severe loss of sodium. Often occurs on the background of heart failure, pathology of the renal arteries and small blood vessels, cardiac valve diseases of the heart, reducing the volume of circulating blood and other serious diseases.

Premium oliguria is sometimes confused with the so-called spurious, appear after prolonged vomiting, diarrhea, bleeding or sweating.

Renal oliguria

Renal oliguria is a condition that is already clear from the title, are directly related to violations of the anatomical structure of the kidneys.

The disease occurs on the background of diseases such as embolism, acute tubular necrosis, interstitial nephritis, bacterial endocarditis, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, etc.

Postrenal oliguria

Postrenal oliguria – a condition where the small urine is the consequence of the emergence of any barriers that prevent the free outflow of blood clots, stenosis, stones, tumors. It is normal to pass urine simply comes out.

Most often it occurs on the background of bilateral obstruction of the urinary tract or urethra. Occasionally – as a result of injuries sustained during childbirth.

From a stone in the ureter excreted little urine

Causes of oliguria in children

In most cases children suffer from oliguria for the same reasons as adults. However, there are several special cases that are worth paying attention to.

Physiological oliguria

In the first days of life a small amount of urine in children is considered normal. The child’s body only begins to adjust from one environment to another, the work of the kidney has not been established, the moisture evaporates through the skin, and he does not want to write a lot.

The lack of power

In infants, in turn, oliguria may reflect the fact that they receive smaller quantity of food than they need. Perhaps lack of breast milk, insufficient fat or poor latching nipple alveoli. You should think about feeding the child with artificial mixtures and to consult with your doctor.

Violation of drinking regime

Another reason toddlers the kidneys secrete an insufficient amount of urine – failure to comply with normal drinking regime. Children who cannot ask to drink, may experience a shortage of water in the morning after sleep, in hot weather, during long walks and stress. Parents should be especially careful to follow this summer. It will be useful from time to time to use instead of diapers easy diaper.

Poisoning medicines

The older children often encounter a phenomenon in which urine is unable to stand in normal amounts because of dangerous drugs. A list of these medicines is quite extensive. Includes more than fifty kinds of products, among which the most numerous is the group of beta-lactam antibiotics. For antibiotics, followed by drugs on the basis of chloramphenicol and isoniazid that have a more gentle effect.

Causes of oliguria in women

The reason for insufficient amount of urine in women can be the next state.

Oral contraceptives

In some cases, urine becomes smaller due to the regular admission of wrong selected oral contraceptives. Women, faced with this problem, you must consult a gynecologist and replace inappropriate hormonal alternative.

Small urine leakage women often blame themselves


Pregnant women have oliguria occurs in the period 13-14 weeks and is considered normal. It is connected in this case with disorders of the genitourinary system, and with increasing size of the fetus, compression of the ureters by the enlarged uterus and increased hydrophilicity of the fabrics. Due to the fact that the water is slowly excreted from the kidney, the formation of internal and external swelling. To help improve the situation of fasting, limiting fluid intake and salt.

Launched cystitis

Very often the cause of urine output is below normal women is launched cystitis, passed into the chronic form. Necessary to cure the underlying disease, and the problem will recede.


Many women try to lose weight by using diuretics and in pursuit of a beautiful figure “earn” health problems. Medications taken disorders dosing and regimens produce the opposite effect of urine becomes smaller, it stands out in drops or a thin stream, pain when urinating.

Neurotic disorder

In rare cases, psychogenic reason for the small amount of urine in women, which is also linked to a desire to improve their appearance: lose weight, get rid of the puffiness or bags under the eyes. The pursuit of beauty flows into a severe form of psychopathic disorder in which fluid intake is reduced more than twice. It is not easy to diagnose, as the limited drinking patients often remains hidden.

Causes of oliguria in men

Specific reasons why men may suffer from this disease, is the inflammation of the appendages and adenoma.

Inflammation of the excretory ducts of the prostate gland

Difficulties with urination are often the consequence of the inflammatory process of the prostate. This disease may be accompanied by comorbid anxiety symptoms: General malaise, erectile dysfunction, discharge from the urethra of the prostate juice (liquid, similar to semen).


Even more dangerous is difficulty urinating due to adenomas with severe diseases of the genitourinary system, accompanied by sharp pain, appearance of small delays between the actual excretion of urine through urethra and feeling such a need to strain the abdominal muscles in order to go to the toilet.

Oliguria can be treated. The amount of urine is restored almost immediately after having eliminated the cause of the disease. Despite the fact that the causes small amount of urine is varied, urologists and nephrologists successfully identify the problem early and manage it promptly.

The leading methods of diagnosis of this disease are anamnesis (listening to the complaints of the patient), urine analysis and clinical evaluation VCG.

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