The definition of “red urine” in itself causes some difficulty, because the word red is quite a broad term and can encompass a variety of shades of pink, red, orange, brown or even the color of strong tea. It all depends on individual perception.
Whenever urine takes on an unusual color and no obvious reason for her colouring, the doctor should prescribe a urine test to determine in the red blood cells and hemoglobin. If the blood is really present, determine the status of micro or gross hematuria. Microhematuria is determined only microscopically so little in the urine red blood cells, but gross hematuria is visible to the naked eye, the urine changes color.
Blood in the urine
The urine is reddish in colour due to the presence of red blood cells, free hemoglobin, porphyrin, or myoglobin, is primarily a symptom, not a disease. Therefore, you first need to know why red urine.
Hematuria – presence of blood erythrocytes or free hemoglobin
It may not be pathological in nature. For example, in women during menstruation urine stains falling from the vagina blood.
In athletes after heavy physical exertion is the destruction of muscle fibers to myoglobin why urine is reddish. In addition, bleeding can hemorrhoid and blood scapulae along with the urine. But it is easy to identify, because in this case, it will be painted and feces.
After some medical procedures, in particular the installation of the catheter, there is a high probability of occurrence of blood in the urine.
Pathology of the urinary system
Causes of red urine is primarily to be found in the urinary system.
Blood can come from the kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra, inflammatory, infectious, systemic diseases.
- Urinary tract infections: urethritis, cystitis, nephritis.
- Kidney stones.
- Polycystic renal parenchyma.
- Diabetic nephropathy.
- Kidney cancer (renal), bladder.
- Foreign body in urethra or bladder.
- Injury, kidney rupture, trauma.
Moving through the ureter, acute oxalate stones can hurt its wall and cause bleeding
Hematuria can occur without pain or any other symptoms. But often the disease may be accompanied by other symptoms.
Acute cystitis – a burning sensation and pain during urination in adults. In infants – fever, restlessness, anorexia. In older children burning and pain in the abdomen.
Pyelonephritis – fever, chills, and flank pain radiating to the lower back.
Kidney stones – symptoms may include severe pain in the abdomen or in the pelvis.
Common to many diseases of the urinary system, which are accompanied by hematuria, shall be the following symptoms:
|Pain in the abdomen, crotch or side||Fever|
|Odor, turbidity, foam in the urine||Shortness of breath|
|Frequent urination||Lethargy, apathy, loss of appetite|
|Urination abundant or scarce, up to no|
Red urine in men can also be a result of:
- prostate cancer;
- of sexually transmitted infections;
- balantitis (inflammation of the foreskin).
In the last two cases the source of the bleeding are ulcers and erosion, caused by infection.
Women should pay attention to:
- the impurity of menstrual blood or dysfunctional bleeding in the middle of the cycle;
- of sexually transmitted infections;
- cancer of the cervix and other reproductive organs;
- the consequences of sexual violence.
In women, blood in the urine may have a physiological cause – to get to it during menstruation
During pregnancy there are also many prerequisites for the emergence of the red tint of the urine. But we should not draw hasty conclusions on the basis of their fears of an unknown disease. You should get tested to accurately establish the presence or absence of blood in the urine.
Cause of idiopathic hematuria in pregnant women can:
- minor hemorrhage due to the pressure of the uterus on the bladder;
- hormonal changes.
In addition, pregnant may urinate red, increasing concentration of urine and strain on the kidneys because they have to excrete waste products of mother and fetus.
Other systemic diseases
If the urine is red, the cause of this may be outside the urinary system. Because the kidneys excrete waste products, systemic diseases also affect the indicators of urine.
These conditions include:
- Hepatitis – urine is dark reddish-brown with an excess of bilirubin.
- Erythropoietic of uroporphyria is a rare congenital disorder in which the heme porphyrin is not formed and therefore the hemoglobin. Porphyrin abrasive urine red.
- Idiopathic autoimmune anemia – the color of urine give destroyed by the immune system the red blood cells.
- Rhabdomyolysis (destruction of muscle fibers with inflammation).
- Tuberculosis, endocarditis.
- The dysfunction of platelets of different origin; hemophilia.
The unusual color of the urine may be due to other reasons, for example, dyes in foods and beverages.
With urine excreted substances that give color to plants and fruits, so the urine also takes on an unusual color
Perhaps the most vivid in all senses example can be considered beets. After the salad, or by eating other dishes from this root, the urine quickly becomes reddish. This is due to the presence of specific pigment – betacaine or betanin. It is sensitive to oxidation and changes its color in acidic environment of the stomach, so people with different acidity and the color of the urine after beet will differ.
In shades of orange colored urine carotenoids carrots, pumpkin.
Depending on the concentration of anthocyanins of BlackBerry, strawberry, blueberry, cranberry, cherry, black currant, red cabbage, give color from red to blue.
We should not forget that medicines can also change the color of urine.
Products of metabolism of certain medications can also stain the urine in shades of red
Such drugs include:
- Anisindione (Maradona) – anticoagulant
- Daunorubicin, Rubomycin – cytostatic chemotherapy
- Laxatives based on Senna (anthraquinone), phenolphthalein.
- Have fentanyl and Prochlorperazine ( Vertenex) – neuroleptics are commonly used to treat dizziness and nausea.
- Rifampicin and metronidazole – antibiotics, giving a red or orange color.
- Chlorpromazine, Thioridazine, used as antipsychotics.
- Warfarin – an anticoagulant used to treat blood clots.
- Propofol – anesthetic
- Indirectly increase the risk of hematuria can aspirin, heparin, cyclophosphamide, which reduce the clotting ability of blood.
Lead poisoning, mercury can affect the color of urine.
Evaluation of hematuria
Hematuria is detected by laboratory methods. Essential to the diagnosis, as blood appears in the beginning of urination, in the middle or at the end. Blood at the beginning of urination indicates damage in the urethra, and at the end of urination indicates that the source is the bladder. If the blood in urine in the whole volume, then it is likely to go on the kidney damage.
In microscopic hematuria the urine color change may not be noticed, but the tests will show the presence of erythrocytes Cytology under the microscope.
Unequivocally confirm or refute the presence of blood in the urine, only a microscopic examination
In addition to the urine test may need other tests.
- Computer tomography allows to identify stones in the kidney or bladder, tumors.
- Ultrasound informative in part of the picture of the structure of the kidney – parenchyma neck, pyelocaliceal complex.
- Intravenous pyelogram x – ray examination of the urinary tract with contrast dye.
- Cystoscopy – visual examination of the bladder through the urethra. Cystoscopy is also possible to take a tissue sample for biopsy.
If, during additional examination of the source of hematuria cannot be found, and it is well established that reddish urine is not food or medicine, then the tests must be repeated after some time. Many diseases in the beginning can occur without pain or other symptoms. Every 3-6 months is necessary to take repeated blood tests, constantly monitor the reading of blood pressure, especially if there are risk factors for the development of malignant tumors of the genitourinary system. These include – genetic predisposition, age 50 years and older, Smoking, constant exposure to certain industrial chemicals.
When the urine is red because of food coloring or other chemicals, normal color is restored as soon as the product is completely removed from the body.
Hematuria as a symptom is not treated. Therapy requires the underlying disease. Correctly prescribed treatment will loosen and the manifestation of hematuria. You can also use some useful tips: maintaining a healthy water consumption from 1 to 2 liters per day, compliance with sparing diet (see table No. 7), temporary sexual abstinence, careful hygiene of the genitals. Penis requires prevention balanta and women struggling with vaginitis.