Biliary cirrhosis of the liver is a special form of cirrhosis, which develops due to lesions of the biliary tract. Note that there is a primary and secondary form in biliary hepatitis. Symptoms and methods of treatment for each form differ significantly. Primary biliary cirrhosis is most likely to occur in women aged 30-50 years.
The symptoms of the disease
The symptoms of primary biliary cirrhosis do not occur immediately. Most often characteristic signs appear already in the severe stages of the disease.
Over time the patient may experience the following attributes:
- Itching. Initially, it may be inconsistent, but over time the itching starts to be chronic in nature. Most often it occurs at night or after a warm shower. This symptom occurs because blood accumulates bile acids, which irritate nerve endings.
- Change the color of the skin.
- Pain in the right hypochondrium. Sometimes when the pain significantly increased body temperature.
Over time, the patient has development of varicose veins of the esophagus, and osteoporosis. Women can disrupt ovarian function. Often diseases of the gastrointestinal tract such as gastritis, duodenitis or hypotonia of the small intestine.
Secondary biliary cirrhosis has similar symptoms. For example, the patient also there is itching, jaundice and pain. When the secondary form is observed color change of urine and feces. In addition, patients get a fever, which is accompanied by increased sweating and increased body temperature. In addition, the liver is greatly increased in size and becomes firm to the touch.
If there is a patient infectious cholangitis, an increase in the spleen. In the later stages of secondary biliary cirrhosis of the liver accompanied by the development of acute liver failure. When not treated, the patient may receive peritonitis, liver abscesses, gastropathy or severe renal insufficiency.
Causes and diagnosis of the disease
The exact reasons for developing primary biliary cirrhosis are unknown. However, doctors say that the disease in the majority of cases progressing because of the specific autoimmune reactions of the organism. A huge impact on the progression of the disease has a genetics. For example, if parents suffered from primary biliary cirrhosis – the chance of occurrence of illness in a child increases by about 10-15%.
A huge role in the development of the disease have a chronic disease. For example, primary biliary cirrhosis could be the consequence of celiac disease or rheumatoid arthritis. In addition, pathogenic factors of the disease include sjögren’s syndrome and autoimmune thyroiditis.
Secondary biliary cirrhosis is most often caused by congenital defects of the biliary tract. However, in some cases, the disease progresses due to tumors, cholangitis or compression of the bile ducts lymph nodes. Secondary biliary cirrhosis can occur due to violations of the outflow of bile.
In the event that the patient’s characteristic symptoms, the doctors prescribed him a complete diagnostic. First of all, the doctor reviewing patient history and conduct an examination.
After that, the patient is administered the following diagnostic measures:
- General analysis of blood.
- Biochemical analysis of blood. This procedure allows to identify abnormalities in the liver and pancreas.
- The General analysis of urine. This procedure allows to evaluate the work of the urinary tract.
- A stool sample.
- Ultrasound examination of abdominal cavity organs. Alternatively, can be used computed tomography.
- A biopsy of the liver. This procedure allows you to conduct a microscopic examination of the liver tissue.
Treatment and prevention biliary cirrhosis
Treat secondary and primary biliary cirrhosis of the liver is similar. Primarily symptomatic treatment. For example, there are special courses of hormonal therapy. Symptomatic treatment is taking vitamin complexes and physical therapy. To eliminate itching use Cholestyramine. This drug should be taken orally, 2-3 times a day. Dosage selects the attending physician based on the individual patient. Sometimes, instead Holestiramina prescribe antihistamines medications or tranquilizers. In some cases, it is advisable to Supplement the conservative treatment with antibiotic agents.
Note that biliary cirrhosis patient necessarily prescribe a special diet, according to which from the diet is necessary to remove all products that overloads the liver. For example, you need to completely remove from the menu alcoholic beverages, fried food, smoked food, pickles and fatty meals. In the list of prohibited foods includes salt and hot spices. To improve digestion, the patient is administered a special enzyme preparations, in which no bile.
If conservative treatment has not produced the desired effect – doctors resort to surgery. With the help of special operations improves the flow of bile and improves the General condition of the patient. If the patient has ascites or severe bleeding in the oesophagus, he prescribed a liver transplant.
In order to avoid the appearance of the disease, doctors are advised to take appropriate preventive measures. First of all, you need to reconsider your food habits. It is advisable not to consume fried foods, pastries and processed foods. Even doctors recommend completely abandon alcoholic beverages and give your body moderate exercise. In addition, you need to make timely treatment of infectious diseases.