Hepatitis B is an infectious viral disease. This is a serious threat to the entire international community, since the disease affects the liver, in most cases leading to cancers, cirrhosis and death.
The transmission of the virus
To begin with, what is hepatitis. This viral disease is caused by pathogens from the family of hepadnaviruses. There are 3 groups: A, b and C. What is the danger of hepatitis of the second group, we have to disassemble.
The main carrier of the virus is man. But it is also scientifically proven that the virus survives outside of the carrier about a week. During this period, it enters the body, it can cause infection. The reasons of such activity of the virus due to the fact that one drop of even dried blood of an infected person is enough to infect hundreds of people. The disease may for a long time to make itself felt. The incubation period from 30 to 180 days. Hepatitis b can be acute or chronic, from which he constitutes a grave danger.
The invisible enemy – inactive hepatitis can live in the human body for a long time. During this period, the carrier of the virus, not knowing about the threat, can infect enough people.
The most common route of transmission of the virus:
- From mother to child during childbirth.
- Through blood and other body fluids (menstrual discharge, semen, saliva).
- Sexually. This applies not only to homosexual couples, but heterosexual. In 5% of cases of infection with hepatitis b virus occur due to unprotected sex.
- Through non-sterile medical supplies. During procedures when it is re-used needles, syringes, can cause the contamination, if it worked with a person infected with the hepatitis b virus.
Symptoms and signs of infection
If to judge according to the health statistics, some people don’t even know how to manifest hepatitis. This is not surprising, as sometimes in acute stage of the disease a person does not feel any changes, it is often called a silent hepatitis B. But there are other times when the disease is aggressive, literally destroying the body. What are the main signs of hepatitis b?
Patients are observed yellowness of the skin and whites of the eyes. This is because there is a General liver damage, and she can not cope with their main functions. This unpleasant and not an aesthetic phenomenon added these symptoms: nausea, vomiting, staining of urine in dark color, overall fatigue and lethargy.
There are more serious consequences of this infection. A small percentage of patients develop liver failure, which in most cases leads to death. Acute hepatitis b causes of liver infection, which may cause the appearance of malignant tumors or cirrhosis.
But it’s not as scary. At the present time 90% of patients recover completely. The body produces strong immunity to hepatitis, and during the first year after infection people recover.
Risk of developing chronic disease
The infection can go to the mode of symbiosis with the human body and wait for the right hour. There is a special risk, for which characterized by the occurrence of a disease. Mostly children under 6 years who were infected with the virus from birth. And if hepatitis b in children becomes chronic in 90% of cases, the adult population is 5%. About 20-30% of patients may suffer from adverse events – cancer and cirrhosis.
The treatment of hepatitis b
Treatment for this infection has no standard recipe. Each doctor, based on individual indicators of the disease, appoint certain antiviral drugs which help the body in fighting infection. In addition, prescribed a special medication if you vomit the water balance. Specialists suggest medicines that can reduce the risk of cirrhosis and liver cancer, resulting in high rates of survival after such a diagnosis.
But this is only possible in the early stages of the disease. Sometimes people ask for help, when there was already a complete defeat of the liver that developed into cancer. A large number of the world’s population has an income below average, not everyone has the opportunity to consult with doctors for a full medical history. In the absence of timely treatment, the disease quickly spreads throughout the body, and help is becoming less possible. According to statistics, in poor countries, liver cancer, developed due to hepatitis b will die within a few months. But at the present time you can still protect yourself from the disease.
We can’t be sure that the disease will not affect us. We all are at risk, as use the services of doctors, tattoo artists, go to salons for manicure and pedicure. And how to protect a fragile body? Just. The vaccine against hepatitis B. Prevention is available to everyone.
The world health organization advises to do vaccination of infants in the first 24 hours of life, in order to protect the baby from problems. This series of vaccination, consisting of 2-3 injections. In 95% of cases, children eventually produced enough antibodies that can fight off infection throughout life.
Remember that hepatitis is not a death sentence. With this diagnosis live many thousands of people. It is important to notice the first signs of hepatitis b, paying attention to any “unusual” behavior of the organism, to pass the test and, if necessary, to start therapy.
Be tested for hepatitis should a month later after you got a tattoo, visited a manicure salon or was on reception at the dentist. Sometimes ask the question: do in the army with hepatitis b? No. In acute or chronic form of hepatitis of any in the army do not take