The increase in this volume is called polyuria, and a reduction is divided into oliguria (when urine output from 50 to 500 ml) and anuria (less than 50 ml). Often the last two things are so associated and transient, that they are called by one term “oliguria-anuria”.
Daily urine quantitatively has its own norms. Deviations indicate pathological changes if they are held firmly and are not associated with physiological factors. For an adult with normal drinking regime is typically the removal on average of 1.5 liters of urine.
To determine whether cessation of urine output is the definition of residual volume by means of installation of the catheter in the bladder or ultrasonic method (revealed not more than 30 ml).
Symptoms of anuria has to be distinguished from other condition is acute urinary retention (ischuria), when:
- the bladder is full and tense;
- it can be palpated above the fold;
- the patient suffers from pains and constant desire to urinate.
To address the question what is this disease and why it occurs, we need to understand the many reasons for oligo-anuria.
Anuria refers to ICD-10?
International classification adopted throughout the world, does not consider anuria separate disease. She attributed it to the sign indicating the deviation from the norm, which is confirmed by clinical symptoms and laboratory methods.
Code R34 is included in the combined unit, among the symptoms of pathology of the urinary system. Separately considered the cases of anuria in women, complicating abortion, pregnancy or arising in the postpartum period.
What is the cause of anuria?
Causes of anuria lie in the kidney with a violation of the filtration function or associated with extrarenal factors. Distinguish the types of anuria depending on the relationship to the kidneys.
Prerenal anuria (extrarenal)
Anuria develops in the intact kidney due to disturbed blood flow in the glomerular apparatus of the nephron, the total water and electrolyte changes.
This mechanism is characteristic of:
- shock from blood loss or other reasons;
- arterial hypotension;
- thrombosis or mechanical compression of renal vessels;
- serious condition of dehydration (fluid loss from vomiting, diarrhea, profuse sweating);
- heart failure of different etiology in the ascending edema;
- liver damage in alcoholic cirrhosis;
- neuroendocrine disorders.
Renal anuria is observed in pathological changes in the kidney tissue.
It is possible:
- in case of poisoning by nephrotoxic poisons and drugs (ethylene glycol, chlorinated hydrocarbons, salts of heavy metals, aminoglycoside antibiotics and tetracycline);
- blockage of renal tubules by crystals of the drugs derivatives of sulfonamides, uric acid;
- kanalzeva necrosis caused by ischemia of the renal parenchyma;
- acute and chronic nephritis, complicated by renal failure;
- the polycystic kidney disease;
- bilateral nephrosclerosis;
- systemic vasculitis.
Dysfunction of filtering is called secretory anuria.
Renal anuria complicates the severity:
- burn disease;
- injuries and surgical operations;
- transfusion of incompatible group or rhesus blood.
Application of methods of radionuclide diagnostics is also accompanied by radiation effects on the kidneys
Application in the treatment of various diseases methods of radiation exposure has caused necessity of studying of negative influence of radiation exposure on the kidneys. The term “radiation nephritis”. It is characterized by the development of symptoms of acute renal failure with anuria.
If the signs found in the period from 3 months to years after irradiation, then the radiation is considered to be acute nephritis. The manifestation of the clinic after one and a half years talking about the chronic form. In the study of disease the great contribution made by scholar S. Kapoor. His work with co-authors proved the role of reaction of the tubules and blood vessels of the glomeruli in radiation. Biopsy detect thrombosis of capillaries.
The reasons are connected with the structures of the urinary tract, lying below the kidney and is responsible for the normal outflow of urine, or adjacent organs.
- the compression of the ureters or urinary bladder tumor urinary bladder, retroperitoneal space, large prostatic hyperplasia in men with inflammatory infiltrate;
- overlap the vents clots of blood with gross hematuria (trauma, collapsing the tumor);
- stuck in the lumen of the ureter or of the cervical portion of the bladder stone.
Anuria called excretory if it is provoked by mechanical obstruction of urine outflow
Some scholars have identified arealow the form of anuria, in which the kidneys are absolutely not involved in cessation of urinary output.
This includes the status:
- in congenital absence of kidney;
- the forced removal of the organ (nephrectomy);
- the imperforate outputting the opening of the urethra;
- spasm of the internal sphincter of the bladder neck;
- reflex blocking effect of the brain on the regulation of urine secretion (occurs when of severe pain during an attack of renal colic, the immersion of a person in cold water).
It seems to us that it’s adding to confusion in the classification of reasons. State it is explained by classical mechanisms.
Depending on the reasons for the development of anuria passes gradually through a latent stage, then oliguria (e.g. chronic nephritis) or has turbulent flow and progresses rapidly (in a state of shock, sepsis).
Anuria is a symptom kidney failure, so it develops in accordance with the phase of dysfunction of kidney and compensatory capabilities of the other body. Any of the above reasons in the end disrupts the filtration urine reabsorption is important for the body’s biological active substances.
How long a person does not feel disease symptoms is dependent on each individual, age, lesion of one or both kidneys. Loss of balance in the production and allocation of waste slag increases the clinic’s endogenous poisoning of the body.
With the gradual course of the symptoms add up:
- of loss of appetite;
- the emergence of a sense of thirst;
- constipation or diarrhea;
- dry mouth.
It is important that when anuria no urge to urinate, if it is not linked to the inflammatory process in the bladder.
The further course of the process is supplemented by the symptoms of the nervous system:
- headache, and muscle pain;
- a change of state of arousal and sleepiness;
The nephrotic syndrome is manifested:
- persistent high blood pressure crisis;
- increasing swelling on the face, feet, hands.
The use of inhalations of oxygen to compensate for its deficiency in tissues