For the normal functioning of the human body corresponds to a number of vital organs that ensure its functioning. Every second it takes a huge variety of diverse biochemical reactions. Part of the synthesized substances used in the process of life, and the other is allocated through the organs of the excretory system like toxic metabolic products.
The body gets rid of unnecessary substances through the feces, the urinary sediment, as a result of breathing and sweating. The formation of urine occurs in both the glomerular apparatus of the kidneys, the main function of which is permanently filtered as it passes through the blood. Change the color of urine, as a rule, speaks about pathological processes in the organs of the excretory system, but it can also be due to a number of diseases in absolutely other structures of the human body.
Normally, the shade of urine will vary from light straw to Golden-yellow that depends on the amount consumed during the day of fluid and intensity of performed physical activity.
Most people don’t control the color of the urine, especially if they do not concerned. Even if the urine has color, distinguishing it from the natural shade, usually without other symptoms, patients are reluctant to seek help from a doctor.
Dark urine may indicate the beginning of certain diseases, or this is due to several natural causes. The correction of these factors very quickly eliminates dark urine.
What determines the color of the urinary sediment?
Before talking about what color urine is considered abnormal, it is necessary to consider the question of what determines its connotation and what components affect its change.
The yellow hue of the urinary sediment is directly dependent on the maintenance in it of special substances, which are formed by splitting a molecule of bilirubin, through complex biochemical reactions
In the urinary sediment contained a small amount of leukocytes, erythrocytes, protein, and bile pigments, which determine its color. The pigment substances represented by the urobilinogen is a product of the transformation of bilirubin.
The decay of the hemoglobin molecule is released bilirubin. It gets to the liver, where under the action of enzymes, is converted into a direct faction. Direct bilirubin is part of bile, goes into the lumen of the duodenum, and then into the intestine, where the process of reverse suction.
A certain part of the substance is exposed to the intestinal microflora and converted into urobilinogen. He goes to the glomerular apparatus of the kidneys, and then excreted through the urinary sediment, giving it a yellow tint.
This means that the greater the amount of urobilinogen, the darker the shade becomes urine, and its discoloration indicates a complete lack of substance in urine.
The main reasons for the color changes of the urinary sediment
Not always dark urine is an indicator of the disease. Quite often this symptom indicates the presence of the patient conditions is absolutely not threatening to his health:
- Features of the diet. The proven ability of some products to affect the color of urine. These include beets, rhubarb, carrots, beans, blackberries, as well as the use of a large amount of beef or lamb. Also carbonated water or other drinks with dye can cause dark urine.
- The reception of a certain group of drugs. If you carefully read the instructions for use, we can see the presence of side effect in the form of color changes of the bladder in the direction of its dimness, the following drugs: Metronidazole, Nitrofuran, Rifampicin, laxatives based on Senna, a complex of vitamins of group b and C, the preparations of aloes, and others.
Medications, as a result of their biotransformation in the body, urine is able to paint in various colors
Also note the appearance of this symptom of the patients was conducted a study using contrast material (excretory urography, CT or MRI, etc.).
A special group are patients who have undergone cancer treatment and therapy aimed at combating malaria. In these patients urine is dark not only in the morning, but also throughout the day.
Not drinking enough fluid during the day. In the morning, the urinary sediment is very concentrated, so it has the most intense color. If there is no exceeding of the drinking mode (a patient drinks more than 3 liters of water a day), the urine, on the contrary, is very light and almost transparent.
Losing a lot of moisture through sweat, it is necessary to take care of its replenishment from the outside
Physical exercise, work in the hot shop or other situations which lead to excessive loss of body fluids of a person or severe dehydration. Often, after an intense workout, some time experiencing this symptom.
To the exclusion of any of the above factors, the urine color will return completely to normal, provided that the reason lies only in this. If the urine remains dark, it is necessary to conduct a thorough diagnosis to establish the true nature of the symptom.
If you experience any kind of changes in the body, it is necessary to consult a doctor, because dark urine can be a manifestation of a number of very serious diseases:
- Diseases of the urinary tract (acute cystitis or aggravation of his chronic, kidney stones, polycystic degeneration of the kidneys, the acute form of glomerulonephritis or pyelonephritis, etc.).
- Diseases of the liver and biliary diseases (viral hepatitis, alcoholic or drug-lose structure of the organ, gall stones, cirrhosis and others).
- Hemolytic anemia, which results in the massive destruction of red blood cells.
- Often the cause of dark urine become tumorous processes of different localization (in the tissues of the kidney, prostate, etc.).
- In women the causes of changes in the normal color of urine can hide in pathological processes of the reproductive system (uterine, cervical cancer and others). A special category of patients with typical complaints represent pregnant, because their body undergoes a series of complex alterations (more information can be found in this article).
- In men, the urine changes its color when cancer or inflammatory processes in the prostate, trauma, testicular, as well as in infectious diseases, sexually transmitted.
- Children’s bodies are exposed to a variety of factors that can affect the color of the urinary sediment. The child is very easily loses moisture, react to medication etc. To the most to learn in detail about the possible causes of discoloration of urine in children, and as with these to struggle, we recommend you to read this article.
The men cause changes in the color of urine often become tumor proliferation in the prostate gland, while there are inherent problems with urination
Other symptoms that accompany the change in the color of urine in diseases:
- pain in the lumbar region, the right upper quadrant or any other part of the abdomen, which are very varied and the intensity of their manifestations;
- violation of urination, pain, cramps, burning;
- dark urine changes its natural smell, that smells like rotten meat or fish;
- the urge to emptying of the bladder become very frequent and exhausting;
- appear discharge from the genital tract in women or lumen of the urethra in men;
- changing the colour of the skin, visible mucous membranes and sclera;
- the body temperature rises, which is accompanied by all the signs of symptoms of an intoxication.
Options to change the hue of urine
When a patient comes to the doctor and complains of that urine has darkened, turned brown or got a different shade, it is already at the stage of diagnosis the doctor may suspect what disease it is.
Urine dark yellow can be associated with congestion directly in the tissues of one or both kidneys, severe febrile conditions and dehydration on the background of abundant vomiting and diarrhea. Pregnant women have dark-yellow urine is a sign of incipient toxicity.
If the urinary sediment has acquired an orange tint, you should seek the cause of the peculiarities of the nutrition of the patient (e.g., eating large amounts of carrots or sparkling water with orange dye).
The urine becomes black in the case alkaptonuria, melanoma or acute necrosis of the kidney.
Brown urine (the color of “dark beer”) typically indicates the beginning hemolytic anemia, hepatic cholestasis or occurs in patients who made a transfusion of inappropriate blood group.
The appearance of traces of blood in the urinary sediment (the colour changes to red), can say that this was the cause of renal colic, necrotic processes in the kidney, and tumor proliferation within the body.
Green urine becomes when stone blockage of the bile channels (obstructive jaundice).
Never delay a visit to the doctor, because only he can answer the question about why Your urine turns dark in color or has acquired a non-specific smell. Remember that any deviation in the body, may be associated with the beginning of serious disease, which requires the fastest possible diagnosis.