Deforming osteoarthritis of the knee joint (gonarthrosis) is a frequently occurring rheumatic disease, which develops as a result of degeneration of the cartilaginous tissue and of the musculoskeletal system.
The process arises from the depletion in the number of proteoglycans (chondroitin, hyaluronic acid and keratan overlays) as they together with type II collagen, responsible for the ability of the knee to respond adequately to the load.
In osteoarthritis, the cartilage wears out and is sealed so that exposed bone. The friction of bare surfaces against each other in the absence of synovial fluid leads to unbearable pain. The lost elasticity of the cartilage tissue of the knees, there is a growth of osteophytes, are formed Uzury (erosion of bone), fractures, cysts.
These degenerative changes in the aggressive course of the disease, the absence of adequate treatment can deform the knee joint, prevent to live a full life. So formed and functional impairment that leads to disability.
- pain in the joints;
- stiffness in the morning after sleep;
- swelling of the tissues around the joint often accompanied by redness;
- shortening of the limb;
- disorder of mobility;
- lameness or inability to perform simple motions (to raise the leg bent at the knee);
- change the appearance (deformation).
As a rule, patients complain of weakness and lethargy.
According to observations, the number of people diagnosed is increasing. According to statistics, deforming osteoarthritis of the knee joints affected more than 50% of the population aged 50 years.
Pathology even younger. Now there are cases when the diagnosis is people older than 20-25 years. To combat the disease it is important to know the trigger mechanisms of osteoarthritis, to conduct prevention and effective treatment.
The majority of patients with this disease – people with excess weight. Excessive stress on the joints leads to premature wear and impaired regeneration processes in them.
The osteoarthritis affected individuals with hereditary connective tissue abnormalities (e.g., dysplasia and hypermobility of the joints).
Exercise also leads to violations of metabolism of cartilage. Illiterate performed exercise lead to microtrauma of muscles, tendons, which subsequently leads to degenerative changes.
Injuries in sports or in a domestic environment, surgical interventions, cause of arthritis and arthritis.
Poor nutrition with lack of necessary amount of essential amino acids, vitamins with minerals, is also one of the risk factors.
Smoking, alcohol abuse increases the chances of developing osteoarthritis of the joints.
Hormonal disorders can increase the chances to receive this diagnosis. So, women in post-menopausal stages start to hurt them a lot more often.
Hypothyroidism, sarcoidosis, diabetes mellitus, autoimmune thyroiditis, liver disease lead to a gradual violation of the metabolic processes, which subsequently lead to numerous deforming arthrosis.
Bad environmental conditions and chronic stress can also give complications to the joints with deformation.
Common cause is a sedentary lifestyle, lack of movement leads to violation of the trophic (feeding) tissue needed for their normal functioning.
Types of osteoarthritis:
- There are primary osteoarthritis (congenital, idiopathic), which is the primordial weakness of the muscle and musculoskeletal system. It is found in 80% of people with this diagnosis.
- Secondary osteoarthritis occurs as a result of injury, surgery or other illnesses.
The degree of osteoarthritis:
- At the first degree no visible change externally, it is impossible to see, but person complains of pain syndrome and/or discomfort in the affected area. Minor swelling, redness.
- Characterized by a slight narrowing of the joint (30 degrees), it is possible to detect osteophytes. Swelling of the joint is pronounced.
- The joint space is narrow, the tissue around the knee are sealed. Deformation visible to the naked eye, limited range of motion. The x-rays seen multiple osteophytes and Uzury. Occurs curvature the axis of the legs.
- Tissue much sklerozirovanie. Bones is ankylosis of the knees are not bent and not moving.
Methods of diagnosis
To contact if the onset of pain in the knee joints and suspected disease need to see a rheumatologist. Diagnosis is made on the basis of complaints of the patient. Often the initial signs of a person begins to feel for several years before diagnosis. Slight pain can occur when you exercise in the sport or physical activity.
But usually people neglect going to the doctor with such symptoms, after rest, the discomfort passes. And in vain, because at this stage the disease can be stopped and delay for many years.
The next stage is the appearance of stiffness and restriction of movement after sleep. For example, a person may not, without pain to stand up, immediately go. In order to begin to move, he has a little stand, or move. After a short time after you Wake up these symptoms go away and people forget about the pain in my knees.
Share pain at the start and the besieged. In the first case, they are after the start of motion, but the blockade of the joint (“jam”), they are unbearable character, and people just can’t fully move.
During the diagnosis the doctor should examine the knee and other joints and to identify their motor ability. Palpation is performed for detecting edema. Feeling allows us to determine whether inflammation is there a rise in temperature of the tissues around the affected area.
In addition, data are collected on previous and concomitant diseases, living conditions and habits of the person. Often this allows you to identify the cause of disease and correct treatment.
The specialist also should thoroughly question the patient about his complaints, it allows to determine the type and stage of disease, prescribe appropriate treatment.
Also the necessary blood and urine tests to exclude many other similar abnormalities: gout, rheumatoid arthritis, peripheral forms of ankylosing spondylitis, osteoporosis, infectious arthritis and others.
The most common method of diagnosis of this disease is x-ray diffraction study. This method is good because it is affordable, simple and does not require prior training.
In addition, can be assigned to computed and magnetic resonance tomography, ultrasonic diagnostics.
In rare cases is arthroscopy of the knee. With her into the joint cavity through a small incision introduces the so-called arthroscope and other tools. The method allows to take fluid for analysis or to carry out surgical procedures. During the procedure the doctor may wash out the cavity of the knee to remove fragments of cartilage and greatly facilitate the patient’s condition and improve mobility. The procedure is minimally invasive and does not require a long rehabilitation period.
Treatment should be aimed at removing inflammation, improving the condition of the cartilage and ligaments of the knee joint.
First and foremost, it is necessary to reduce the amount of load that comes to the knees. In the case of overweight, the main goal should be losing weight.
The patient should also limit the intensity of physical exercise. Naturally, in this period it is necessary to exclude sports and protect the joints. Carrying, to work in the garden in the sweat of this period is strictly prohibited. It is impossible to prevent hypothermia and you want to avoid stressful situations. If a joint is very swollen, and even had a fever, you must lie down at home a couple of days to the level of inflammation decreased.
Despite the load reduction, it is impossible to sedentary lifestyle. Motion must be present, but they must be physiologically correct. In the early stages of osteoarthritis can help kinesitherapy sessions under the supervision of a specialist.
A very good therapeutic effect is achieved by performing exercises with elastic rubber band. Some suitable complexes of yoga or tai Chi. Movement should be smooth and slow, otherwise you can cause additional tissue damage. To obtain high efficiency from the lessons they need to be performed regularly.
More rapid healing of the joints also contribute to the observance of a day regimen and a healthy diet. Definitely need to forget about the harmful habits such as Smoking or alcohol abuse.
Treat disease with traditional medicine, “to kick of salt” from the body, hard to do squats and walk on my knees all this is likely to harm than help. Therefore, the approach to such methods wisely.
Among the drugs in the treatment of osteoarthritis, the most common nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). They have proved themselves by long practice, are quite quickly, reduce pain good. The basis of their mechanism of action is the blocking of the cyclooxygenase enzyme inflammation.
The most common and inexpensive are Aspirin, Ibuprofen, Indomethacin, Diclofenac. The recommended frequency of use of these drugs for 5-7 days, as they are known for their negative effect on the stomach, liver, kidneys and other organs. In addition, long-term use of these drugs may lead to desiccation of the cartilage of the knee and subsequent progression of deforming arthrosis. Therefore, a long and haphazard use of these medicines will not give good effect.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs of new generation are more selective and have a sparing effect. They are able to really effectively remove the pain syndrome of the joint. In clinical practice, well proven drugs such as active ingredient, Celecoxib, Xefocam, Nimesil, Arcoxia.
Drug for the treatment must appoint a physician. If some of them did not fit, it does not mean that others from this group to apply not worth it. “Ideal” drug from the NSAIDs is usually found by trial and error. Taking these medications on an empty stomach should not, therefore, take them to after eating, drinking plenty of water.
Is strictly forbidden to use drugs of this group without checking with your doctor in case of pregnancy and individual intolerance. When a sudden appearance of edema, shortness of breath, allergic reactions taking them should be abolished and assign appropriate analogue of drugs.
After the removal of inflammation it is necessary to restore the cartilage inside the joint. For these purposes, often used medicines and biologically active additives, composed of chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine. Also drink beef and fish broth, which contains collagen, the latter is considered more effective in therapeutic terms.
The regeneration of cartilage of the joints is slow, and rapid results from the use of these pills should not wait. You must have at least six months of receiving mineral supplements to feel results. If these products meet the trace elements as boron, zinc, magnesium and vitamin D3, the effect will be higher. Excellent results are achieved when co-administered these supplements in conjunction with MSM (source of sulfur for ligaments, anti-inflammatory substance).
A lot of positive feedback on the use of chondroprotectors in conjunction with fish oil and astaxanthin (an antioxidant from algae).
Supplements of hyaluronic acid can enhance the mobility by increasing the number of synovial fluid. Sometimes it is introduced in the form of injections inside the joint, and about 3-6 months comes relief from the ailment.
For very severe pain and inability to walk, the doctor may prescribe hormone injections. Often used for this purpose Diprospan. The effect comes very quickly, the knee pain is subsiding. Only here to apply the blockade should not be more than 2 times a year. Or you can earn osteoporosis, diabetes and many other problems.
Despite the fact that the drug greatly reduces inflammation, it can promote degenerative processes within cartilage with frequent use, and then the deformation of the joint will progress much faster. So if possible, you should try to avoid such aggressive treatment.
Creams and gels usually include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and chondroprotectors. With careful massage with the use of these drugs affected deforming osteoarthritis of the knees can get quite a good result. Swelling is reduced and mobility is restored. In the case of inflammation of the tissue it is impossible to heat, so it is prohibited to use warming medicine.
The most common ointment first days without, Ibuprofena ointment, Nise and Chondroitin sulfate.
Unfortunately, in some cases it was not possible to save the joints from deforming osteoarthritis of the knee. When the endoprosthesis by means of titanium or ceramic materials. Now this operation is quite common and allows you to avoid wheelchairs for many people.
Usually the next day after the hip replacement patient gets up and begins to develop a limb with the help of special instruments and exercises. Very often after a couple of months people forget about the disease and lives a full life. To surgical intervention took place, assess the condition of the skeletal system and surrounding tissues. When severe osteoporosis and weak muscles need appropriate treatment, up to surgery.
It is important to remember that a revision (replacement) of the implants 1 is performed once in 10-15 years, so it’s best not to bring up such an operation possible and apply effective methods of prevention and treatment.
When excess amount of fluid inside the knee joint it is evacuated by means of puncture. The procedure is performed by a doctor in a hospital.
Among the popular treatments you can highlight physical therapy. It includes paraffin, the use of magnets, electrophoresis, laser treatment. These therapies are used outside of the acute process.
Mud treatment (balneotherapy) osteoarthrosis, Naftalan, underwater shower-massage is often used in the conditions of sanatorium-resort treatment and the annual repetition improve the situation of the patient.
To obtain stable result is better to combine pharmacological methods with other techniques.
- women are advised refusal to wear shoes with heels if they want to avoid deformations;
- regular execution gymnastics;
- avoiding harmful habits;
- to normalize the weight of the body to prevent arthritis;
- a varied diet rich in vitamins and minerals, plant foods;
- to avoid injury and excessive exercise.
To prevent and facilitate the flow of osteoarthrosis is also recommended:
- often eat foods with ginger, turmeric or drink beverages with the addition of these spices;
- to include in the diet jelly and jelly sweets, made with agar-agar.
With an active and healthy life, feasible physical activity a person can maintain the health of his knees for many years.