In order for the spine to function properly and withstand exposure it is important that the intervertebral discs were in a normal condition, because they play the role of a particular shock absorber. Prolapse of the intervertebral disk, more popularly known as a hernia.
The discs themselves are located between each vertebra and assume the role of cushion that softens impact on the entire spine as a whole.
Prolapse of an intervertebral disc mostly happens when the external environment of the disc is injured and the fibers are detached in their closed environment. Usually, this disease affects people in middle age, around 35 years, pain thus remains small and sick for a long time, they simply suffer in anticipation that all will pass by itself. Localize the disc prolapse is usually in the lower part of the spine, on the rump.
The causes of the disease
The main cause of the loss of the intervertebral disc is the excessive load on the affected area.
As an example, we can talk about the following situations:
- Often minor injuries that happen one after the other never show up, but accumulate subsequently a fairly small load for the injured area of the spine, and there will be a bulging disc.
- Falling from a great height, especially if it resulted in a fractured spine, will lead in the end to prolapse of the intervertebral disc.
- During exercise when a person tries to lift a heavy weight with bending of the spine forward, it will lead to the emergence of a herniated disc in the lumbar.
The symptoms of the disease
Prolapse of an intervertebral disc in its manifestations, has the standard symptoms, which corresponds to the main diseases of the spine, namely:
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- the pain, which is given in right and left hand;
- the pain is localized in the buttocks or shoulder;
- the feeling of tingling or numbness in one or both hands;
- constant fatigue during exercise on hands and feet.
In particularly severe cases, the patient loses control over bowel and bladder, you may feel numbness in the genital area. It all depends on the area of protrusion of the disk, on how well this place will be defined – so the treatment will be assigned true.
Diagnosis of prolapse
The beginning of the resolution of the diagnosis usually begins with the patient and ends with a physical examination. The main task of the doctor in the initial stage is a thorough examination of the patient about the reasons for the painful condition of his spine. In the second stage, the specialist will conduct clinical research that will make a more accurate picture of the disease.
Ongoing studies will depend on symptoms:
- x-ray the area where more pronounced pain;
- MRI of the spine is performed to closely examine the condition of the discs and spinal cord;
- electrophysiological examination aimed at finding the damaged nerve;
- discography of pain of the intervertebral discs.
The main treatment of the disease
If the patient is not greatly concerned about pain, then treatment will not be particularly difficult or painful, it usually remains at a conservative level. Medication is used if the spinal cord did not find inflammation. Successfully used a combination of paracetamol and anti-inflammatory drugs with exercise, light exercise or Pilates.
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With more severe symptoms, where the patient concerned about pain, the doctor prescribes injections, which are injections with a local anaesthetic. With more severe course of the disease used surgical therapy to completely eliminate the subsequent symptoms of the disease.
Appointed surgeon-in-therapy will be determined depending on each individual case. The doctor will take into account the x-ray results and the overall clinical picture.
The disc prolapse spine surgery by removing the disk, which fell from his seat and compresses the nerve root nearest. When the disk is removed, it ceases to press on the nerve and thus relieves pain. A similar operation is performed under local anesthesia, and its duration is approximately 120 minutes.
The progress of the operation:
- the doctor produces a cut in the fallout from the disk;
- removed prolapsed disc or part of it, in some cases, affect and part of the spine. The nerve roots are checked to ensure that they are no longer in production pressure;
- in some cases, produce a transplant of the bone, to maintain the spine. Take an extra bone in another part of the body where extra is done the incision;
- after finishing the manipulation, the specialist inserts into the hole of the drainage tube, which is ejected through the day;
- in the end, the doctor sews up the incision and makes a bandage of a wound.
The risks associated with surgery
Like any other surgery, removal of disc has its own nuances and possible complications you should be aware of before you make a decision. In order to minimize complications, the patient needs to more fully tell the whole information about yourself to the anesthesiologist and the surgeon, then they will be able to more accurately select the operating method. If to speak about the risks associated with the process of operating, it is worth noting the infection, damage to surrounding organs and nerves. After surgery there may be temporary difficulty emptying bowel and bladder. There is also the risk of a complete paralysis of the limbs, in the case of lesions of the spine. But it is worth noting that such cases are very rare.
As an additional complication is called non-Union of the vertebrae, the dispersion of the mounting structure or the expiration of the spinal fluid. If the disk has not been completely extracted, the patient may wait for its re-deposition. From the anesthesia as complications should be called suffocation, due to the overlap of the respiratory tract, and the decline rate and pressure. In very rare cases it is possible to observe an allergic reaction to General anesthesia, but this option is ruled out if the patient was already under anesthesia before this surgery.
The postoperative period
After the operation the patient left for a couple of hours in the house to provide a safe awakening. After that, he transferred to the surgical ward, and the next day he is allow to get out of bed, but only under the supervision of experts. The surgeon may advise the use of a special support belt for the back. If necessary, apply anesthetics. A day removed the drainage. Bending and heavy lifting are not permitted for 6 weeks and after 4 weeks you can start light work.
The first 3 weeks the patient is forbidden to sit, the maximum period in a sitting position may be only 10 minutes. In a few weeks, the specialist may be assigned to physiotherapy, after 2 weeks the patient visits the surgeon removes the stitches. At this point, the patient should share all my feeling and being, and also appeared to discuss complaints, if any. If the patient’s temperature rose to 38 degrees and there were other worries, it is urgently necessary to show the doctor or nurse.