Excessive weight gain during pregnancy increases the likelihood of long-term obesity in both women and babies. In addition, it can lead to premature labor, the occurrence of hypertension, varicose veins and preeclampsia. Not the best way overweight women can affect the state of the unborn child.
In order to avoid rapid weight gain during pregnancy, you do not need to starve or follow strict diets, just try to adhere to the basic principles of healthy eating . Eat less sweets, muffins and animal fats, avoid fried foods, canned foods, smoked, spicy and salty foods.
Nutrition during pregnancy must be balanced. Try to eat more protein foods and complex carbohydrates. Do not forget about fats, of course, it is better to get them not from fatty meat, but from nuts, vegetable oils, fish. Fruits, cereals, vegetables, dairy products, meat, poultry, and seafood must be present in the diet.
Do not be afraid of edema and therefore limit water consumption. The more you drink, the better the kidneys will work, which means that more salt will be eliminated from the body, resulting in less fluid in the tissues.
Sufficient locomotor activity also plays an important role in maintaining the normal weight of the pregnant woman.
Moderate physical activity during pregnancy will not only keep your body weight under control, but also help to improve the general condition, blood supply, strengthen muscles and prepare the body for childbirth. In addition, the sport will be also a good prevention of early toxicosis, edema, heartburn and shortness of breath. The choice of suitable activities for pregnant women is very large – it can be swimming, yoga, Pilates, dancing and even regular walks. In the absence of contraindications, it is possible to engage in pregnant women from the first month and throughout the pregnancy.
Lack of weight during pregnancy
Most often, in pregnant women, weight is reduced in the early stages, when a woman is plagued by toxicosis. This is not surprising, because the constant nausea and malaise does not contribute to good appetite. A slight decrease in body weight during a given period usually does not affect the state of the crumbs, so this should not cause any disturbances.
To reduce weight significantly, try to reduce the manifestations of toxicosis. To do this, avoid the consumption of fatty, spicy and spicy foods, eat small meals, but more often, drink more fluids. Mint tea, alkaline water, aromatherapy helps to eliminate nausea. To reduce the symptoms of toxemia, walk more, get enough rest, avoid heavy loads and stress.
Sometimes women, for fear of getting better, limit themselves to nutrition or follow diets, resulting in a lack of weight during pregnancy. Physicians consider such situations more alarming than excessive increases. This is due to the fact that the future baby suffers from the lack of weight. Lack of weight in a pregnant woman can lead to impaired fetal development and growth retardation. Such children are often born weak, have neuralgic problems, often get sick. In addition, poor nutrition during pregnancy significantly increases the likelihood of miscarriage.
Unfortunately, there are cases when a woman eats well, and the weight does not increase enough, does not increase at all, or even decreases. This should be a major concern. Such a condition can signal the unfavorable state of a woman or a future baby.
Pregnancy for most women is perhaps the only period when weight gain is perceived with joy, because this is evidence that the baby is growing and developing. Indeed, the body weight of a pregnant woman is one of the main indicators of both her health and the health of her future baby. It is very important that the weight during pregnancy increases gradually in accordance with the norms, since its shortage or over-consumption can lead to serious complications for both the crumbs and the mother.
The weight of pregnancy
In addition to the child, body weight, which at the time of birth can average from 3 to 4 kilograms, other factors also influence the weight gain of the pregnant woman. At the end of the third trimester, the weight of the uterus reaches almost one kilogram, the amniotic fluid weighs the same, the placenta usually accounts for about half a kilogram. The volume of blood increases substantially by this time, it becomes more than about one and a half liters, as well as the amount of additional liquid, it usually reaches two liters. In addition, there is an increase in the mammary glands, they can add to the weight of up to five hundred grams. But the total mass of fat deposits, recruited for the entire time of carrying a child, normally, should not exceed four kilograms.
In aggregate, all this is about 10-13 kilograms – that is exactly what a woman should gain by the end of pregnancy. However, in reality, everything is not so simple, because each case is individual. 10-13 kilograms is an average indicator that is suitable for those who have an average height and body weight. The rate of weight gain during pregnancy depends largely on the initial weight of the woman , or rather body mass index. Knowing it, you can easily calculate the allowable increase for yourself.
The mass index (abbreviated BMI) is very simple to calculate. To do this, put your height (in meters) in a square, and then divide by the result the weight (in kilograms) that you had before pregnancy. For example, 65 kg. : (1.62 m. X 1.62 m.) = 24.77. The resulting figure will be BMI.
If the BMI does not reach 18.5 – your weight is insufficient, during pregnancy you should gain at least 12.5 kg., The maximum increase is 18 kg. If the index is between 19.8 and 25, you have a normal average weight. In this case, during the childbearing, you need to recover at least 11.5, a maximum of 16 kg. If the BMI is between 25 and 30, the weight is excessive. During pregnancy, it is considered normal for women with this physique to score a minimum of 7, a maximum of 11.5 kg. If the BMI exceeds 30 – this indicates obesity. The rate of weight gain during pregnancy for these women is 5-9 kg.
Knowing the BMI, in addition to the total allowable weight gain, with the help of a special table you can determine the rate of weight gain by month of pregnancy.
But how much the weight of a pregnant woman changes depends not only on the BMI. Many other factors can influence it. For example, the presence of edema, high water, fetal size, a tendency to corpulence , etc. Much more will be an increase in women carrying twins. In this case, it can be from 15 to 22 kg. Older women and those who will experience an increased appetite during pregnancy have a greater risk of gaining excess weight .