Involuntary urination is not related to disease. And is a separate symptom that can occur due to a variety of pathological conditions affecting the urinary and sexual system. Involuntary urination is a symptom, which occurs quite often in urological practice.
Patients facing him, noted the strong decline in the quality of life in connection with the disease. So, why this violation and what to do?
What is urinary incontinence
Incontinence is a symptom in which the individual fails to control the act of urination and the urine flows involuntarily. Involuntary release of urine from the urethral canal cannot be controlled by the willpower and often occurs unexpectedly. If the random urination is controlled by the Central nervous system, when dysuric phenomena, the act of urination does not depend on the will and desire of the patient. This symptom is on the third place of occurrence, second only to the pain and stranguria.
Incontinence is found equally often in both sexes and in children. It should be noted that this symptom has some characteristics and differs in various diseases. And also depends on the age of the sick person. Uncontrolled urination is a deviation from the norm and requires a prompt determination of the causes that led to this disease.
Options for incontinence
Depending on the underlying disease, the symptom incontinence of urine becomes very variable.
In the clinical practice of urologists accepted the division into the following types of incontinence:
- involuntary urination during sleep;
- incontinence as a result of severe stress situations;
- senile incontinence often leak urine drops;
- as a consequence of the trauma of the detrusor and structures of the genitourinary tract;
This mechanism is involuntary urination is prevalent in older people
For children the most common cause of urinary incontinence or enuresis become features of the functioning of the Central nervous system. Sleep is the cause of incoordination of the autonomic nervous system. In most cases, children aneurismatic independently with the maturity of the child. In rare cases, enuresis can occur during the day.
Among children urologists distinguish several groups of causes leading to incontinence:
- organic. The defeat of the urinary tract due to infections and metabolic disorders.
- functional with overactive bladder, incontinence occurs after urination.
- psychological, if your child has night terrors, the child’s sleep is restless and there is a stressful situation.
- genetic predisposition.
Men involuntary urination occurs somewhat less often than women. This is due to the characteristics of the structure and functioning of the urinary tract.
The most common causes are such diseases as:
- cancer of prostate gland (adenoma or malignancy);
- weakness of the pelvic floor muscles;
- trauma and surgery on the external and internal genital organs in anamnesis;
- stress and emotional strain;
- some diseases of the nervous system that may be disturbed spontaneous urination ( parkinsonism, multiple sclerosis, ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, loss of consciousness);
- infectious diseases of the urinary tract;
- injury to the brain and spinal cord and the violation of innervation on peripheral nerves;
- side effects of certain medications.
The act of involuntary urination delivers significant discomfort of the sick person and significantly reduces the quality of everyday life. Often the urination occurs when sudden contractions of the muscles during a cough or sneeze.
Given the peculiarities of the male psychology, men often take so long to appeal to specialist professional medical advice, which can significantly improve their condition. Remember, only the timely treatment and diagnosis can help to avoid to you and your family serious complications and long-term treatment.
Causes of incontinence of the fair half of mankind are somewhat different from men’s and are less rare. The causes of this symptom are different from those of men and in 75% of cases presented inflammatory diseases of the urogenital tract. Due to the specific structure of the female urethra, it is 3-4 times shorter than the male and the diameter of the urethral channel is wider, bacterial infection is much easier to impress the female urinary system than men. In second place after urinary tract infection in women is pregnancy and status-related hormonal changes.
Pregnant women often suffer from involuntary urine output due to changes in the body
- Pregnancy. During pregnancy there is a significant growth of the uterus, which inevitably squeezes the most organs located in the abdominal cavity. The greatest pressure is felt by the bladder and during pregnancy, large fetus may occur the malfunction of the muscles responsible for the urination of detrusor.
- Childbirth. For difficult births occurring in a natural way, it is possible hyperextension of the tissues of the bladder and urethra, and formation of micro-traumas of the urinary tract. Complications in childbirth can be a condition in which the sphincter of the bladder neck injured then there is a constant leaking of urine.
- Menopause or menopause. In this period there is a significant hormonal changes a woman’s body. Reduces the amount of female sex hormones – estrogen, which leads to the formation of dysuric disorders in the urogenital tract.
- Age older than 60 years. In old age the same as men and women begin to weaken the muscles of the pelvic floor and this leads to the formation incontinence.
- Trauma and surgery on the pelvic organs.
- Metabolic disorders associated with obesity grade 3 and 4. In particular, increases the risk of urinary incontinence with diabetes type 2 diabetes.
It is important to note that there are many reasons that can cause the disease with the symptom of urinary incontinence, but they do not have such a high risk, as described above.
When applying for consultation to the urologist, regardless of the gender of the patient is a business that gathers all the data of the anamnesis of life and disease of the patient, then the specialist performs the physical inspection and study, on the basis of which it can be assumed some diseases, which are characterized by this symptom.
Further, specialist urologist sends the patient to undergo additional studies, which include:
- ultrasonic diagnosis of the body of the pelvis and genitourinary system. For men can be assigned to a transrectal ultrasound – TRUS, for a more detailed study of the prostate tissue. Method of ultrasound diagnosis is the gold standard when conducting urological research.
- x-ray methods, which revealed not only morphological, but also functional manifestations of diseases of the urinary system. Most often used protectorate with the use of radiopaque substances.
- horoscope and cystoscopy. For the study of computer assisted surgery is a special technique that allows you to visualize the mucosa of the urethral canal and bladder.
- bacterioscopic examination is the PAP smears from the mucous urethral channel.
Also, in some cases to confirm the diagnosis and severity of the disease can be used such studies as uroflowmetry, profilometry. For women necessarily performed a pelvic exam and taking a vaginal swab to exclude infection and of sexually transmitted diseases.
Only under the guidance of a competent specialist to deal with the problem
Treatment of incontinence depends on the underlying disease causing it, but in any case the treatment try to start with non-invasive techniques and conservative therapy and only with low efficiency go for surgical treatment.
Mandatory component of treatment is dietary treatment with restriction of consumption of fatty, spicy and salty foods, as well as strict control over the consumption of the liquid. Used drugs stimulating the smooth muscle tone of the urinary tract. In the elderly, if the disease is associated with weakness of the pelvic floor muscles, a cure for incontinence is not required, is a special set of physical therapy aimed at strengthening the muscular frame. The same applies to women in the postpartum period as during pregnancy, the muscles are subjected to significant hyperinflation.
When infectious-inflammatory diseases of the mandatory component of therapy is getting the use of antibacterial drugs.
If incontinence of urine is associated with organic lesions of the sphincter of the bladder neck or urethral injuries, surgery that aims to restore the integrity of the sphincter of the detrusor. After the surgical intervention need the observance of the recovery period with the use of physiotherapy and therapeutic physical training. Only treatment of the underlying disease can completely get rid of this unpleasant symptom is urinary incontinence.