Spinal shock is considered to be a phenomenon that is rapidly developing shortly after spinal trauma due to a bad fall, road accidents, fights or damage to the production.
The patient is practically not feel anything in the affected areas, any type of reflexes are also absent.
This type of condition is sometimes reversible, however, only if early and effective therapy. In some situations, to change anything is almost impossible.
Causal factors and symptoms
The physiology of this phenomenon, its symptomatic manifestations and projections for the future will depend on the localization of the injury. Damage can appear not only in the place of application traumatic forces, therefore the doctor must discover kabelnye (bottom) plots of the damage. The most severe cases of spinal shock can occur when the cervical vertebrae trauma (especially of the divisions S1-S4). In medical practice this condition is called high tetraplegia.
Violations occur in the spine, organs in the pelvis, there are difficulties with the upper and lower extremities. Patients, survivors these injuries are often not capable of “recover”, having survived such a condition. Patients can not carry out the normal breathing process. If there is a problem in some areas of the 5th cervical vertebra, rarely sick can bend hands in elbow joints. This is possible only when properly conducted therapy.
After the defeat of the spinal disc C6 has the ability to bend and straighten the hands, and if you have problems with the vertebral disc C7 – still have to straighten some of his fingers. If the disk is damaged, C8, the patient is able to bend and straighten the fingers and hands. When such a phenomenon occurs in the area of thoracic vertebra, may occur paralysis and paresis of the legs. The deepening of the breathing process occurs when you lose the 1st or 2nd thoracic vertebra.
On cardiac muscle function spinal shock has an impact in some areas of 3 – 5 vertebrae, and in 10-m and 12-m it contributes to the development of paralysis of the abdominal muscles. With the defeat of the 12th vertebra function of the respiratory system are in normal state, and the chance of returning to productive life is significantly increased.
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There is a certain regularity: the smaller the degree of damage and the risk of onset of spinal shock, the more a high probability of resuming the functionality of the affected organs and return the patient to normal life.
The duration of the phenomenon will largely depend on a certain number of factors. If there are no serious complications, the body is able to cope with injuries for the past 2 or 3 weeks. When help was not provided in a timely manner and the condition worsens when blood circulation problems, pressure sores, and inflammation of the urinary tract, the recovery period will last much longer.
A distinctive feature of this state is a level change or even a loss of sensation in the area of injury and the likelihood of paralysis. Injuries in the lumbar region can have an extremely negative impact on the function of any internal organ located in the abdominal cavity. In addition, there may be trophic disorders, and areflexia.
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When any injury of intervertebral disks C1-C4 often there is a significant violation of motor function of limbs and innervation of the diaphragm. Patients not able to move without external support and breathe normally. Risks of death from these situations amount to approximately 70%.
Methods of diagnosis and therapy
Spinal shock is a phenomenon that, upon detection of which the patient should undergo a thorough diagnosis. Only a complete examination and accurate identification of the localization of injuries is able to identify possible treatment options and prognoses for the future recovery of the patient.
It is imperative to assess motor function on a scale of 10. This type of testing is usually done dynamically, based on the pace of development of the disease. In certain situations, improving the patient’s condition may be noticeable almost immediately.
The key to success in treatment and recovery of patients largely depends on timely emergency treatment. To facilitate the patient’s status is necessary to carry out the following steps:
- To ventilate the lungs (perhaps artificially) and to ensure the restoration of respiratory functions.
- To call medical assistance.
- To exclude the possibility of bending back, try not to move the patient to another place on any unsteady improvised means or surfaces. Under the shoulders and neck to put the convolution of clothing or pillows.
Until the appointment of therapy, the specialist conducts a thorough examination of the victim. The specialist must find the place of injury, evaluate motor function on a scale of 10. You should pay attention to the dynamics of the disease. Therapy patients must be carried out exclusively in the conditions of a neurosurgical hospital.
Surgery may be required only in situations when:
- observed vascular blockade;
- there are signs of compression of the spinal cord;
- diagnosed with a hematoma in the area of the spinal cord, affecting the vessels containing the liquor;
- discovered unstable fracture one of the vertebrae.
Spinal shock contributes to the emergence of not just physical, but also moral weakness. A large number of people after the injury are in a state of depression and preparing for disability. But often this phenomenon is temporary. If the patient was timely provided assistance and infringement of the spinal cord was avoided, motor functions can recover quickly.
The most severe and prolonged cases return to normal life are in severe injuries of the thoracic and cervical spine. Since the affected areas are high, almost all of the body may be paralyzed. May occur high risk of death because of complexity appear in the process of the cardiac muscle and lungs.